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PURPOSE Is retention of gammaH2AX foci useful as a biomarker for predicting the response of xenograft tumors to cisplatin with X-ray? Is a similar approach feasible using biopsies from patients with cervical cancer? EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Mice bearing SiHa, WiDr, or HCT116 xenograft tumors were exposed to cisplatin and/or three daily doses of 2 Gy. Tumors(More)
Pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (mES cells) exhibit approximately 100 large gammaH2AX repair foci in the absence of measurable numbers of DNA double-strand breaks. Many of these cells also show excessive numbers of DNA single-strand breaks (>10,000 per cell) when analyzed using the alkaline comet assay. To understand the reasons for these unexpected(More)
Taxane-based chemotherapy is an effective treatment for castration-resistant-prostate cancer (CRPC) via stabilization of microtubules. Previous studies identified that the inhibitory effect of microtubule-targeting chemotherapy on androgen receptor (AR) activity was conferred by interfering with AR intracellular trafficking. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of(More)
Androgen ablation therapy causes a temporary reduction in tumor burden in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Unfortunately the malignancy will return to form lethal castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). The androgen receptor (AR) remains transcriptionally active in CRPC in spite of castrate levels of androgens in the blood. AR transcriptional(More)
Hormone therapies for advanced prostate cancer target the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain (LBD), but these ultimately fail and the disease progresses to lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The mechanisms that drive CRPC are incompletely understood, but may involve constitutively active AR splice variants that lack the LBD. The(More)
Castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC) is suspected to depend on androgen receptor (AR). The AF-1 region in the amino-terminal domain (NTD) of AR contains most, if not all, of the transcriptional activity. Here we identify EPI-001, a small molecule that blocked transactivation of the NTD and was specific for inhibition of AR without attenuating(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that tumor cells exposed to some DNA damaging agents are more likely to die if they retain microscopically visible gammaH2AX foci that are known to mark sites of double-strand breaks. This appears to be true even after exposure to the alkylating agent MNNG that does not cause direct double-strand breaks but does produce(More)
Extracts of the marine sponge Niphates digitalis collected in Dominica showed strong activity in a cell-based assay designed to detect antagonists of the androgen receptor (AR) that could act as lead compounds for the development of a new class of drugs to treat castration recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). Assay-guided fractionation showed that niphatenones(More)
PURPOSE The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is activated in most castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC). Transcriptionally active androgen receptor (AR) plays a role in the majority of CRPCs. Therefore, cotargeting full-length (FL) AR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling has been proposed as a possible, more effective therapeutic approach for CRPC. However, truncated(More)
PURPOSE Persistent androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity is clinically evident in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therefore, AR remains as a viable therapeutic target for CRPC. All current hormonal therapies target the C-terminus ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. By using EPI to target AR activation function-1 (AF-1), in the(More)