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Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is a nuclear DNA-binding protein that participates in the DNA base excision repair pathway in response to genotoxic stress in mammalian cells. Here we show that PARP-1-deficient cells are defective in NF-kappaB-dependent transcription activation, but not in its nuclear translocation, in response to TNF-alpha. Treating mice(More)
BACKGROUND Tachykinins (TKs) have been shown to be involved in the excitatory enteric motor pathway. This study aimed to examine the direct and nerve-mediated effect of specific NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor agonists and antagonists in colonic preparations from control subjects and patients with idiopathic chronic constipation (ICC). MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
Micro- and macrovascular complications are major causes of disability and death in patients with diabetes mellitus. Functional impairment of endothelial activity precedes the development of morphological alterations during the progression of diabetes. This endothelial dysfunction results from reduced bioavailability of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO),(More)
Diabetic patients have an increased risk for cardiovascular complications with respect to the general population. Micro- and macrovascular complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease are usually preceded by endothelial dysfunction, a condition characterized by impaired vasorelaxation resulting from reduced(More)
1. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a condition that involves proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukins 1beta and 6 (ILs). In this disease, it has been shown that an abnormal microcirculatory system is implicated. 2. Therefore, the effects of in vivo treatment for three days with interleukins 1beta and 6 were investigated on rat isolated mesenteric(More)
Adiponectin (Ad) is an insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective properties. Cleavage of native full-length Ad (fAd) by elastases from activated monocytes generates globular Ad (gAd). Increased gAd levels are observed in the proximity of atherosclerotic lesions, but the physiological meaning of this proteolytic Ad fragment(More)
Cardiovascular complications of diabetes result from endothelial dysfunction secondary to persistent hyperglycemia. We investigated potential compensatory mechanisms in the vasculature that oppose endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. BALB/c mice were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce type 1 diabetes (T1D). In mesenteric vascular beds (MVBs),(More)
Expression of constitutive and inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2, respectively) and the role of prostanoids were investigated in the aorta and mesenteric vascular bed (MVB) from the portal vein-ligated rat (PVL) as a model of portal hypertension. Functional experiments were carried out in MVB from PVL and sham-operated rats in the absence or(More)
Arginine, initially classified as a non-essential amino acid, participates to multiple biological processes including release of several hormones, collagen synthesis during wound healing, antitumor and antibacterial activities and non-specific immunity. Nitric oxide synthase and arginase competes for L-arginine as a substrate and this event appears to play(More)
Micro- and macro-vascular complications are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Despite the vast clinical experience linking diabetic metabolic abnormalities to cardiovascular lesions, the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to diabetic cardiovascular injury is still largely unknown. Significant(More)