Carmela Martinelli

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Sweet cream buttermilk (SCB) is a rich source of phospholipids (PL). Most SCB is sold in a concentrated form. This study was conducted to determine if different concentration processes could affect the behavior of SCB as an ingredient in cheese. Sweet cream buttermilk was concentrated by 3 methods: cold ( < 7 degrees C) UF, cold reverse osmosis (RO), and(More)
Fortification of cheesemilk with membrane retentates is often practiced by cheesemakers to increase yield. However, the higher casein (CN) content can alter coagulation characteristics, which may affect cheese yield and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using ultrafiltration (UF) retentates that were processed at low(More)
Modifications of the optical properties of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] induced by fluorination of the vinylene units are investigated by means of time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations and spectroscopic measurements in solution. The energy of the main absorption peak is blue-shifted by more than 0.8(More)
A general method to synthesize conjugated molecules with a benzofulvene core is reported. Up to four conjugated substituents have been introduced via a three-step sequence including (1) synthesis of 1,2-bis(arylethynyl)benzenes; (2) exo-dig electrophilic cyclization promoted by iodine; and (3) cross-coupling reaction of the resulting bis-iodobenzofulvenes(More)
The use of an amphiphilic aryleneethynylene fluorophore as a plasma membrane marker in fixed and living mammalian cells and liposome model systems is demonstrated. We show here that the optical properties of the novel dye are almost independent on pH, in the range 5.0-8.0. Spectroscopic characterization performed on unilamellar liposomes ascertained that(More)
This review is an overview of our previous work on the synthesis and properties of poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s (PPVs) selectively fluorinated in different positions of the conjugated backbone. Both the synthetic challenges and the effects of functionalization with fluorine atoms on the optical behavior are discussed, highlighting the peculiarities and the(More)
Emulsifying salts (ES) are used for process cheese production, however, it is not completely understood how ES influence the physical and chemical properties of process cheese. The purpose of this study was to understand the interactions between ES and milk proteins using a simple model system. In this system, milk protein concentrates (MPC) solution was(More)
In this review, the main synthetic aspects and properties of fluorinated arylenevinylene compounds, both oligomers and polymers, are summarized and analyzed. Starting from vinyl organotin derivatives and aryl halides, the Stille cross-coupling reaction has been successfully applied as a versatile synthetic protocol to prepare a wide series of π-conjugated(More)
Three new metal-free organic dyes with the [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) π-bridge, having the structure donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) and labeled as 19, 20 and 21, have been designed and synthesized for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Once the design of the π-acceptor block was fixed, containing the BTBT as the π-bridge and the(More)
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