Learn More
BACKGROUND The chronic shortage in the supply of human organs available for allotransplantation has turned attention toward the use of animals as potential donors, with pigs as the most likely species under consideration. Hyperacute rejection, the initial and immediate barrier to a pig-to-primate xenograft, has been addressed by generation of transgenic(More)
Cholesterol accumulation and removal are regulated by two different transcription factors. SREBP-2 (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-2) is best known to up-regulate genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake, whereas LXR (liver X receptor) is best known for up-regulating cholesterol efflux genes. An important cholesterol efflux gene that(More)
OBJECTIVES This study investigated the effects of androgens on gene expression in male- and female-donor macrophages. BACKGROUND Men have more severe coronary disease than women. Androgen exposure increases foam cell formation in male but not female macrophages, and male macrophages express >4-fold more androgen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid than(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the acceptor specificity for human ABCG1 (hABCG1)-mediated cholesterol efflux. METHODS AND RESULTS Cells overexpressing hABCG1 were created in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cells and characterized in terms of lipid composition. hABCG1 expressed in these cells formed homodimers and was mostly present intracellularly. Cholesterol efflux(More)
Chemokines are important mediators of macrophage and T-cell recruitment in a number of inflammatory pathologies, and chemokines expressed in atherosclerotic lesions may play an important role in mononuclear cell recruitment and macrophage differentiation. We have analyzed the expression of the linked chromosome 16q13 genes that encode macrophage-derived(More)
The T lymphocyte plasma membrane condenses at the site of activation but the functional significance of this receptor-mediated membrane reorganization is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that membrane condensation at the T cell activation sites can be inhibited by incorporation of the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), which is known to prevent the(More)
The ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, are LXR-target genes that participate in the removal of cholesterol from lipid-laden macrophages, a crucial anti-atherogenic mechanism. Statins are currently the most efficacious therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. We and others have shown that statins decrease(More)
OBJECTIVE Maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in human macrophages is essential to prevent foam cell formation. We evaluated the relative contribution of the ABCA1 and ABCG1 transporters to cholesterol efflux from human macrophages, and of the capacity of LXR agonists to reduce foam cell formation by stimulating export of cellular cholesterol. METHODS(More)
AIM The effects of 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol (24,25EC) on aspects of cholesterol homeostasis is well-documented. When added to cells, 24,25EC decreases cholesterol synthesis and up-regulates cholesterol efflux genes, including ABCA1. Synthesis of 24,25EC occurs in a shunt of the mevalonate pathway which also produces cholesterol. Therefore, 24,25EC(More)
CYP27A1 (sterol 27-hydroxylase) catalyses an important sterol elimination pathway in the human macrophage, and consequently may protect against atherosclerosis. We studied the expression and regulation of CYP27A1 in a human macrophage-like cell-line, THP-1, and primary HMDMs (human monocyte-derived macrophages). In both macrophage cell types, we found that(More)