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BACKGROUND The chronic shortage in the supply of human organs available for allotransplantation has turned attention toward the use of animals as potential donors, with pigs as the most likely species under consideration. Hyperacute rejection, the initial and immediate barrier to a pig-to-primate xenograft, has been addressed by generation of transgenic(More)
OBJECTIVE Maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in human macrophages is essential to prevent foam cell formation. We evaluated the relative contribution of the ABCA1 and ABCG1 transporters to cholesterol efflux from human macrophages, and of the capacity of LXR agonists to reduce foam cell formation by stimulating export of cellular cholesterol. METHODS(More)
Cholesterol accumulation and removal are regulated by two different transcription factors. SREBP-2 (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-2) is best known to up-regulate genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake, whereas LXR (liver X receptor) is best known for up-regulating cholesterol efflux genes. An important cholesterol efflux gene that(More)
The T lymphocyte plasma membrane condenses at the site of activation but the functional significance of this receptor-mediated membrane reorganization is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that membrane condensation at the T cell activation sites can be inhibited by incorporation of the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), which is known to prevent the(More)
Cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) from cholesterol-loaded macrophages is an important anti-atherosclerotic mechanism in reverse cholesterol transport. We recently provided kinetic evidence for two distinct pathways for cholesterol efflux to apoA-1 [Gaus et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 9363]. Cholesterol efflux from two membrane pools occurs(More)
OBJECTIVE Cholesterol efflux from macrophages in the artery wall, a key cardioprotective mechanism, is largely coordinated by the nuclear oxysterol-activated liver X receptor, LXRalpha. We investigated the effect of statins on LXR target gene expression and cholesterol efflux from human macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS In human macrophages (THP-1 cell(More)
OBJECTIVES This study investigated the effects of androgens on gene expression in male- and female-donor macrophages. BACKGROUND Men have more severe coronary disease than women. Androgen exposure increases foam cell formation in male but not female macrophages, and male macrophages express >4-fold more androgen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid than(More)
Chemokines are important mediators of macrophage and T-cell recruitment in a number of inflammatory pathologies, and chemokines expressed in atherosclerotic lesions may play an important role in mononuclear cell recruitment and macrophage differentiation. We have analyzed the expression of the linked chromosome 16q13 genes that encode macrophage-derived(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the acceptor specificity for human ABCG1 (hABCG1)-mediated cholesterol efflux. METHODS AND RESULTS Cells overexpressing hABCG1 were created in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cells and characterized in terms of lipid composition. hABCG1 expressed in these cells formed homodimers and was mostly present intracellularly. Cholesterol efflux(More)
Macrophages in arterial walls accumulate lipids leading to the development of atherosclerotic plaques. However, mechanisms underlying macrophage lipid accumulation and foam cell formation are often studied without accounting for risk factors such as dyslipidemia. We investigated the effect of varying concentrations of triglyceride (TG) within physiological(More)