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An understanding of the kinetics of the osmotic response of cells is important in understanding permeability properties of cell membranes and predicting cell responses during exposure to anisotonic conditions. Traditionally, a mathematical model of cell osmotic response is obtained by applying mass transport and Boyle-vant Hoff equations using numerical(More)
A new method for determining Hamaker constants was examined for materials of interest in integrated circuit manufacture. An ultra-high vacuum atomic force microscope and an atomic force microscope operated in a nitrogen environment were used to measure the interaction forces between metals, dielectrics, and barriers used during the metalization portion of(More)
The behaviour of three different liquid-gas slug flows (water, carboxymethyl cellulose and activated sludge) in a vertical tube was studied using a high speed camera (HSC). Experiments were performed using different flow rates and two tube diameters (6.3 and 9.9 mm). The observed difference in behaviour of the ascending gas slugs can be explained by the(More)
Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been used successfully in biological wastewater treatment for effective solids-liquid separation. However, a common problem encountered with MBR systems is fouling of the membrane resulting in frequent membrane cleaning and replacement which makes the system less appealing for full-scale applications. It has been widely(More)
Shear stress has been recognized as an important parameter in controlling particle back-transport from membrane surfaces. However, little is known of the relationship between transient shear conditions induced by air sparging and fouling control near membrane surfaces. In this paper, the different types of surface shear stress profiles that had beneficial(More)
Application of a two-phase slug flow in side-stream membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has proven to increase the permeate flux and decrease fouling through a better control of the cake layer. Past literature has shown that the hydrodynamics near the membrane surface have an impact on the degree of fouling by imposing high shear stress near the surface of the(More)
The spinning drop tensiometer is widely used to study the interfacial properties of many systems. However, there have also been several reported limitations with the spinning drop tensiometer. In this paper, it is shown that there is a relationship between the measured interfacial tension and the rotation rate of the drop. A detailed investigation of this(More)
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