Carlos Simmerling

Learn More
We describe the development, current features, and some directions for future development of the Amber package of computer programs. This package evolved from a program that was constructed in the late 1970s to do Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement, and now contains a group of programs embodying a number of powerful tools of modern computational(More)
The ff94 force field that is commonly associated with the Amber simulation package is one of the most widely used parameter sets for biomolecular simulation. After a decade of extensive use and testing, limitations in this force field, such as over-stabilization of alpha-helices, were reported by us and other researchers. This led to a number of attempts to(More)
Molecular mechanics is powerful for its speed in atomistic simulations, but an accurate force field is required. The Amber ff99SB force field improved protein secondary structure balance and dynamics from earlier force fields like ff99, but weaknesses in side chain rotamer and backbone secondary structure preferences have been identified. Here, we performed(More)
The generalized Born (GB) model is one of the fastest implicit solvent models and it has become widely adopted for Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. This speed comes with tradeoffs, and many reports in the literature have pointed out weaknesses with GB models. Because the quality of a GB model is heavily affected by empirical parameters used in(More)
We report unrestrained, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of HIV-1 protease that sample large conformational changes of the active site flaps. In particular, the unliganded protease undergoes multiple conversions between the "closed" and "semiopen" forms observed in crystal structures of inhibitor-bound and unliganded protease, respectively, including(More)
We present the three-dimensional molecular theory of solvation (also known as 3D-RISM) coupled with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation by contracting solvent degrees of freedom, accelerated by extrapolating solvent-induced forces and applying them in large multi-time steps (up to 20 fs) to enable simulation of large biomolecules. The method has been(More)
HIV-1 protease remains an important anti-AIDS drug target. Although it has been known that ligand binding induces large conformational changes in the protease, the dynamic aspects of binding have been largely ignored. Several computational models describing protease dynamics have been reported recently. These have reproduced experimental observations, and(More)
Computing converged ensemble properties remains challenging for large biomolecules. Replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) can significantly increase the efficiency of conformational sampling by using high temperatures to escape kinetic traps. Several groups, including ours, introduced the idea of coupling replica exchange to a pre-converged,(More)
Slow-onset enzyme inhibitors are of great interest for drug discovery programs since the slow dissociation of the inhibitor from the drug-target complex results in sustained target occupancy leading to improved pharmacodynamics. However, the structural basis for slow-onset inhibition is often not fully understood, hindering the development of(More)
The diaryl ethers are a novel class of antituberculosis drug candidates that inhibit InhA, the enoyl-ACP reductase involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis (FASII) pathway, and have antibacterial activity against both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the present work, we demonstrate that two time-dependent B-ring(More)