Carlos S. Santos

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BACKGROUND In the past 15 years, Brazil has undergone notable social and public health changes, including a large reduction in child mortality. The Bolsa Familia Programme (BFP) is a widespread conditional cash transfer programme, launched in 2003, which transfers cash to poor households (maximum income US$70 per person a month) when they comply with(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. METHODS This cohort study collected(More)
BACKGROUND Many epidemiologic studies report the odds ratio as a measure of association for cross-sectional studies with common outcomes. In such cases, the prevalence ratios may not be inferred from the estimated odds ratios. This paper overviews the most commonly used procedures to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios and extends the discussion to the(More)
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important statistical tool for evaluating complex relations in several research areas. In epidemiology, the use and discussion of SEM have been limited thus far. This article presents basic principles and concepts in SEM, including an application using epidemiological data analysis from a study on the determinants of(More)
We address the problem of binary image operator design over large windows by breaking it into two phases. Firstly, we design several operators over small sub-windows of the main window. The outputs of these first level operators are then combined into a global operator. We devise a heuris-tic, motivated by Information Theory, for breaking the main window(More)
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