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Three glutamate transporters have been identified in rat, including astroglial transporters GLAST and GLT-1 and a neuronal transporter EAAC1. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the synthesis of each glutamate transporter subtype using chronic antisense oligonucleotide administration, in vitro and in vivo, selectively and specifically reduced the protein(More)
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may be accompanied by mental retardation and epilepsy. Its cause remains unknown, despite evidence that genetic, environmental, and immunological factors may play a role in its pathogenesis. To investigate whether immune-mediated mechanisms are(More)
Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a subset of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Four lines of mice accumulating one of these mutant proteins (G37R) develop severe, progressive motor neuron disease. At lower levels of mutant accumulation, pathology is restricted to lower motor neurons, whereas higher levels cause more severe(More)
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder of early onset that is highly variable in its clinical presentation. Although the causes of autism in most patients remain unknown, several lines of research support the view that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of abnormal cortical circuitry that underlies autistic cognitive(More)
BACKGROUND In the neurodevelopmental disorder autism, several neuroimmune abnormalities have been reported. However, it is unknown whether microglial somal volume or density are altered in the cortex and whether any alteration is associated with age or other potential covariates. METHODS Microglia in sections from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of(More)
The present study proposes a reproducible model of experimental degeneration of adult motor neurons in the rat. Avulsion of ventral roots in the adult lumbar cord transects motor axons at the root exit and leads to retrograde cell death of 80% of motor neurons 2 weeks later; this result follows a series of retrograde changes, including chromatolysis, loss(More)
Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) often results in neurological dysfunction including HIV dementia (HIVD). Alterations in cytokine and redox balance are thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of HIVD, but the specific mechanisms underlying neuronal dysfunction and death are unknown. Activation of cytokine receptors(More)
BACKGROUND Gene-environment interactions (GEI) are involved in the pathogenesis of mental diseases. We evaluated interaction between mutant human disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (mhDISC1) and maternal immune activation implicated in schizophrenia and mood disorders. METHODS Pregnant mice were treated with saline or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid at(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is the most common neurological complication of HIV infection. Currently, the pathogenesis of HIV-SN is unknown. Because there is no convincing evidence of neuronal infection, HIV neurotoxicity is likely to be effected either by secreted viral proteins such as the envelope(More)
Mutation in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a Cu/Zn enzyme that removes oxygen radicals and protects against oxidative injury, has been implicated in some cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). As a first approach to examining the mechanism(s) through which these mutations cause specific degeneration of motor neurons, we have used(More)