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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common glial cell-derived brain tumour, with one of the worst prognoses among all cancers. GBM cells are infiltrative and extremely resistant to radio- and chemotherapy, which inevitably leads to recurrence after surgical resection. These inherent GBM properties are the reasons that patient treatment has not seen(More)
Antimicrobial proteins and peptides play an important role in the primary defence of epithelial barriers in vertebrates and invertebrates. Here we report the detection of the apolipoproteins A-I and A-II in the epidermis and epidermal mucus of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Both apolipoproteins are major(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells are characterised by their extreme chemoresistance. The activity of multiple-drug resistance (MDR) transporters that extrude antitumor drugs from cells plays the most important role in this phenomenon. To date, the mechanism controlling the expression and activity of MDR transporters is poorly understood. Activity of the(More)
The aim of this work was to investigate the differences in dose settings and image quality among 10 X-ray systems used for interventional cardiology in Chile. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was measured on a phantom of 20 cm thickness of polymethyl methacrylate slabs. Image quality was evaluated using DICOM images of a test object Leeds TOR 18-FG for(More)
Interventional cardiology procedures usually imply high doses to the staff, as paediatric cardiologists need to stay closer to the patient than during adult procedures. Also, biplane systems are used that imply an additional source of staff doses. The objective of this paper is to measure scatter doses in four X-ray systems, using polymethyl methacrylate(More)
Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric protocols in all five X-ray fluoroscopy systems used for interventional cardiology procedures existing in Chile have been evaluated. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and image quality using a test object (TO) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms have been measured for the typical paediatric patient(More)
Old-growth forests of southern Chile represent an important reserve of temperate (rain) forests in the world. Wetter and colder forest ecosystems appear to be more efficient in conserving and recycling N such that mostly non-plant available N species are lost, which could be indicated by more depleted delta15N values of the soil and plants. Hydrological N(More)
We study the manner in which learning shapes behavior towards risk when individuals are not assumed to know, or to have beliefs about, probability distributions. In any period, the behavior change induced by learning is assumed to depend on the action chosen and the payoff obtained. We characterize learning processes that, in expected value, increase the(More)
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) continues being the primary cause of chronic hemodialysis and terminal renal disease worldwide. At tissue levels the DN occurs with glomerulopathy affecting the integrity of the filtration barrier and with an extensive glomerular and tubule-interstitial fibrosis. Current available therapeutic approaches have only demonstrated a(More)
Diabetic nephropathy ranks as the most devastating kidney disease worldwide. It characterizes in the early onset by glomerular hypertrophy, hyperfiltration and mesangial expansion. Experimental models show that overproduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a pathogenic condition for podocytopathy; however the mechanisms that regulate this(More)