Carlos I Andrade

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BACKGROUND Genetic factors are known to be involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development. METHOD We evaluated a possible association between CCND1 A870G and P21/WAF1 C98A polymorphisms and OSCC, as well as the impact of the genotypes on protein immunoexpression. The study group consisted of 80 individuals with histopathological diagnosis of(More)
A questionnaire addressing issues related to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was administered to 165 undergraduate medical students in an urban hospital in India. Of various sources, the mass media contributed most to the students' knowledge about and attitudes toward the treatment. Senior and junior students differed little in their knowledge and(More)
Earlier research indicated the efficacy of a complex herbal formulation in the attenuation of electroconvulsive shock (ECS)-induced amnestic deficits in rats; this study sought to ascertain whether a simplified herbal formulation (Memorin; Phyto-Pharma, India) also was effective. Rats pretreated for a fortnight with Memorin (200 mg/kg/day) or vehicle were(More)
During the last decade the use of herbal medicinal substances in the attenuation of anterograde and retrograde amnesia induced by electroconvulsive shock (ECS) has been studied using animal research. We will discuss the background of herbal medicine in India, review the research findings on herbal medicines for ECS-induced amnestic deficits, and examine the(More)
BR-16A is an herbal (non allopathic) medication used in India to enhance cognition. In experiment 1, 28 Wistar rats received either BR-16A (200 mg/kg/day) or vehicle alone for 3 weeks. During the third week, the rats were tested for learning in the Hebb Williams complex maze. BR-16A-treated rats showed significantly better learning than did controls.(More)
In a double-blind, prospective study, 30 consecutive treatment-naive adult men with first-onset psychosis and DSM-IIIR provisional schizophreniform disorder (without good prognostic features) were randomized into true electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and sham ECT groups. Both groups received haloperidol in a fixed dose of 15 mg at night. The ECT schedule(More)
Previous research found that the administration of verapamil and felodipine immediately before electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) attenuated ECS-induced retrograde amnesia. This study examined whether sodium nitroprusside, an antihypertensive drug that does not affect calcium channels, has a similar action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received nitroprusside(More)
Phenylephrine is a nonselective alpha-receptor agonist. This study examined whether the administration of phenylephrine immediately before electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) attenuated ECS-induced retrograde amnesia. Adult male Wistar rats received phenylephrine (0.25 mg/kg i.p.) or saline 3 min before each of three once-daily true or sham ECS. Retention of(More)
To date, no pharmacological agent has been confirmed to lessen electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-induced memory deficits. BR-16A is an herbal preparation, containing various organic extracts, used in India for the enhancement of cognition (among other applications). In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received six once-daily electroconvulsive(More)
Two once-daily electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) produced retrograde amnesia in rats trained on a Hebb-Williams maze; Verapamil (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or felodipine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) administered half an hour before each ECS attenuated this ECS-induced amnesia. Hence, these drugs may hold promise for the containment of amnesia induced by electroconvulsive therapy(More)