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Pattern recognition receptors for fungi include dectin-1 and mannose receptor, and these mediate phagocytosis, as well as production of cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and the lipid mediator leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)). The influence of G protein-coupled receptor ligands such as LTB(4) on fungal pattern recognition receptor expression is unknown. In this(More)
To maintain lifelong production of blood cells, haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are tightly regulated by inherent programs and extrinsic regulatory signals received from their microenvironmental niche. Long-term repopulating HSCs reside in several, perhaps overlapping, niches that produce regulatory molecules and signals necessary for homeostasis and for(More)
Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators that participate in inflammatory diseases and innate immune function. We sought to investigate the importance of LTs in regulating the microbicidal activity of alveolar macrophages (AMs) and the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs. The role of LTs in enhancing AM microbicidal activity was evaluated(More)
The ingestion of apoptotic cells (ACs; termed "efferocytosis") by phagocytes has been shown to trigger the release of molecules such as transforming growth factor beta, interleukin-10 (IL-10), nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Although the antiinflammatory actions of these mediators may contribute to the restoration of homeostasis after tissue(More)
Leukotrienes (LTs) are known to be produced by macrophages when challenged with Leishmania, but it is not known whether these lipid mediators play a role in host defense against this important protozoan parasite. In this study, we investigated the involvement of LTs in the in vitro and in vivo response to Leishmania amazonensis infection in susceptible(More)
Alveolar macrophages abundantly express PPAR-γ, with both natural and synthetic agonists maintaining the cell in a quiescent state hyporesponsive to antigen stimulation. Conversely, agonists upregulate expression and function of the cell-surface receptor CD36, which mediates phagocytosis of lipids, apoptotic neutrophils, and other unopsonized materials.(More)
Clostridium sordellii is an emerging pathogen associated with highly lethal female reproductive tract infections following childbirth, abortion, or cervical instrumentation. Gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of C. sordellii infections present major challenges to the development of better preventive and therapeutic strategies against this(More)
Fatal cases of acute shock complicating Clostridium sordellii endometritis following medical abortion with mifepristone (also known as RU-486) used with misoprostol were reported. The pathogenesis of this unexpected complication remains enigmatic. Misoprostol is a pharmacomimetic of PGE(2), an endogenous suppressor of innate immunity. Clinical C. sordellii(More)
Prostaglandins (PGs) are potent lipid mediators that are produced during infections and whose synthesis and signaling networks present potential pharmacologic targets for immunomodulation. PGE(2) acts through the ligation of four distinct G protein-coupled receptors, E-prostanoid (EP) 1-4. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the(More)
Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators implicated in asthma and other inflammatory diseases. LTB(4) and LTD(4) also participate in antimicrobial defense by stimulating phagocyte functions via ligation of B leukotriene type 1 (BLT1) receptor and cysteinyl LT type 1 (cysLT1) receptor, respectively. Although both Galpha(i) and Galpha(q) proteins have been(More)