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Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that, following differentiation from CD56(bright) to CD56(dim) cells, have been thought to retain fixed functional and phenotypic properties throughout their lifespan. In contrast to this notion, we here show that CD56(dim) NK cells continue to differentiate. During this process, they(More)
Bordetella petrii is the only environmental species hitherto found among the otherwise host-restricted and pathogenic members of the genus Bordetella. Phylogenetically, it connects the pathogenic Bordetellae and environmental bacteria of the genera Achromobacter and Alcaligenes, which are opportunistic pathogens. B. petrii strains have been isolated from(More)
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, gfp, was used to develop versatile reporter systems for genetic analysis in, and monitoring of bacteria. This reporter system is available on a plasmid and on a mini-transposon located in a suicide delivery plasmid for generation of chromosomal fusions. To achieve sensitivity levels necessary for use in monocopy(More)
Mass implementation of DNA vaccines is hindered by the requirement of high plasmid dosages and poor immunogenicity. We evaluated the capacity of Mannheimia haemolytica ghosts as delivery system for DNA vaccines. In vitro studies showed that bacterial ghosts loaded with a plasmid carrying the green fluorescent protein-encoding gene (pEGFP-N1) are efficiently(More)
The protein expression patterns of exponentially growing, starved, and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Enterococcus faecalis cells were analyzed to establish whether differences exist between the VBNC state and other stress responses. The results indicate that the protein profile of VBNC cells differs from that of either starved or exponentially growing(More)
Fetal liver progenitor cell suspensions (FLPC) and hepatic precursor cells derived from embryonic stem cells (ES-HPC) represent a potential source for liver cell therapy. However, the relative capacity of these cell types to engraft and repopulate a recipient liver compared with adult hepatocytes (HC) has not been comprehensively assessed. We transplanted(More)
Most infectious agents are restricted to the mucosal membranes or their transit through the mucosa constitutes a critical step in the infection process. Therefore, the elicitation of an efficient immune response, not only at systemic, but also at mucosal level, after vaccination is highly desirable, representing a significant advantage in order to prevent(More)
The respiratory mycobiome is an important but understudied component of the human microbiota. Like bacteria, fungi can cause severe lung diseases, but their infection rates are much lower. This study compared the bacterial and fungal communities of sputum samples from a large cohort of 56 adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) during nonexacerbation(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries. EPEC uses a type III secretory system to deliver effector proteins into the host cell. These proteins cause the characteristic attaching and effacing lesion on enterocytes. Lactoferrin, a glycoprotein present in human milk, inhibits EPEC adherence to(More)
Prediction of lung innate immune responses is critical for developing new drugs. Well-established immune modulators like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can elicit a wide range of immunological effects. They are involved in acute lung diseases such as infections or chronic airway diseases such as COPD. LPS has a strong adjuvant activity, but its pyrogenicity has(More)