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Rhizobium nodulation (Nod) factors are lipo-chitooligosaccharides that act as symbiotic signals, eliciting several key developmental responses in the roots of legume hosts. Using nodulation-defective mutants of Medicago truncatula, we have started to dissect the genetic control of Nod factor transduction. Mutants in four genes (DMI1, DMI2, DMI3, and NSP)(More)
The symbiotic interaction between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti results in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the host plant. The early stages of nodule formation are induced by bacteria via lipochitooligosaccharide signals known as Nod factors (NFs). These NFs are structurally specific for bacterium-host pairs and are(More)
The symbiotic infection of the model legume Medicago truncatula by Sinorhizobium meliloti involves marked root hair curling, a stage where entrapment of the microsymbiont occurs in a chamber from which infection thread formation is initiated within the root hair. We have genetically dissected these early symbiotic interactions using both plant and rhizobial(More)
The ability of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 and other diazotrophic bacteria to internally colonize roots of Arabidopsis thaliana has been studied. Strains tagged with lacZ or gusA reporter genes were used, and the principal colonization sites were found to be the points of emergence of lateral roots, lateral root cracks (LRCs). High frequencies of(More)
BACKGROUND There is a paucity of data on clinical epidemiology of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients. We aimed to describe patients' characteristics and natural history of this poorly known condition. METHODS All cases of symptomatic HIV-related osteonecrosis diagnosed from 1990 through 2003 in 19 Spanish clinics were reviewed. Functional status at(More)
Maraviroc belongs to the family of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonists that prevent the entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into host CD4+ T cells by blocking the CCR5 co-receptor R5. Maraviroc is currently the only CC5R co-receptor inhibitor that has been approved for clinical use in HIV-1-infected patients carrying the CCR5 tropism(More)
INTRODUCTION Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and proinflammatory effects. Maraviroc (MVC) is an antagonist of CCR5 receptor. CCR5 is the receptor of RANTES (Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted), a mediator of chronic inflammation and endothelial function. Our aim was to(More)
INTRODUCTION Switching therapy studies are usually designed as second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in patients without previous virologic failures. Combined ART (cART) with DRV/r and ETR has a good pharmacokinetic profile, high genetic barrier and has been proved as rescue therapy. The aim of our study was to analyze efficacy and safety of therapy(More)
The GlutenTox® Pro Test is an immunochromatographic test for the detection of gluten in foods and on surfaces with varying compositions and levels of processing, from raw foods/ingredients to final product testing. The Method Developer evaluation for the validation of the GlutenTox Pro Test Kit (Biomedal Diagnostics, Sevilla, Spain) for the detection of(More)
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