Carlos Gabriel Grijalva

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BACKGROUND The primary role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in causing infant hospitalizations is well recognized, but the total burden of RSV infection among young children remains poorly defined. METHODS We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance of acute respiratory infections among children under 5 years of age in three U.S.(More)
BACKGROUND The disease burden of influenza infection among children is not well established. We conducted a population-based surveillance of medical visits associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza. METHODS Eligible children were younger than five years of age, resided in three U.S. counties, and had a medical visit for an acute respiratory tract(More)
BACKGROUND Routine infant immunisation with seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) began in the USA in 2000. Although invasive pneumococcal disease has declined substantially, the programme's effect on hospital admissions for pneumonia is unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of the programme on rates of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia(More)
CONTEXT During the 1990s, antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) decreased in the United States. The sustainability of those changes is unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess trends in antibiotic prescriptions for ARTI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory(More)
BACKGROUND Since introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United States in 2000, rates of invasive pneumococcal disease have declined. However, the national impact of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumonia and otitis media remains unknown. OBJECTIVES We compared national rates of outpatient visits for(More)
BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death among U.S. adults. Incidence estimates of pneumonia confirmed radiographically and with the use of current laboratory diagnostic tests are needed. METHODS We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of hospitalized bacterial infections among children with and children without juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and to examine the effects of selected medications. METHODS Using national Medicaid data from 2000 through 2005, we identified a cohort of children with JIA and a comparator cohort of children with attention(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare incidence rates of selected opportunistic infections among children with and children without juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS Using U.S. national Medicaid administrative claims data from 2000 through 2005, we identified a cohort of children with JIA based on physician diagnosis codes and dispensed medications. We also(More)
OBJECTIVE Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of otitis media in children. In this study we estimated the effect of routine childhood immunization with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on frequent otitis media (3 episodes in 6 months or 4 episodes in 1 year) and pressure-equalizing tube insertions. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study(More)
BACKGROUND Although hospitalizations due to invasive pneumococcal disease decreased after routine vaccination of young children with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) began in 2000, information on the trends in pneumococcal meningitis is limited. METHODS We estimated national trends in rates of hospitalization for pneumococcal meningitis,(More)