Carlos Enrique Araya

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CD80 is expressed on all antigen-presenting cells and is present on podocytes in a number of experimental models of nephrotic syndrome. We tested whether urinary soluble CD80 increased with idiopathic minimal-change disease (MCD). We collected urine and serum samples from patients with MCD in relapse and in remission, patients with nephrotic syndrome(More)
Controversy exists as to whether minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represent different diseases or are manifestations within the same disease spectrum. Urinary excretion of CD80 (also known as B7.1) is elevated in patients with MCD and hence we tested whether urinary CD80 excretion might distinguish between patients(More)
Idiopathic minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome (IMLNS) was proposed to be a disorder of T-cell dysfunction by Shalhoub in 1974. The mechanisms by which T-cells increase glomerular permeability have remained elusive (and unproven). There is evidence that IMLNS may be due to a circulating factor released from activated T-cells. In recent years, efforts have(More)
In adult patients with ESRD, calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is an uncommon but life-threatening complication. No effective therapy exists, although anecdotal case reports highlight the use of sodium thiosulfate (STS), a calcium-chelating agent with antioxidant properties. CUA is rare in children, and STS use has not been reported. The objective of(More)
Minimal change disease (MCD) is the most common nephrotic syndrome in children and is commonly thought to be a T-cell disorder mediated by a circulating factor that alters podocyte function resulting in massive proteinuria. We suggest that MCD is a “two-hit” disorder. As originally hypothesized by Reiser et al. in 2004, we propose that the initial hit is(More)
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in idiopathic minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome (IMLNS), the T regulatory (T reg) cell suppressor mechanism is deficient, thereby enhancing cytokine release by T effector cells. Twenty-one patients with IMLNS, eight healthy controls and two patients with nephrotic syndrome and membranoproliferative(More)
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) emerged in the mid-1990s as a major graft- and life-threatening complication of pediatric kidney transplantation. This condition, usually involving uncontrolled B lymphocyte proliferation, straddles the border between infection and malignancy, since Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is intimately associated with the(More)
A generic version of tacrolimus was approved for use in the USA in August 2009. These narrow therapeutic index generics are tested for bioequivalence only in adults. No data are available on generic tacrolimus levels in children with allografts. Four patients with stable renal allografts in our pediatric program were inadvertently switched to generic(More)
The BK virus, a DNA virus from the Polyomavirus group, represents an opportunistic infection of immunosuppressed transplant recipients. Though the virus was discovered approximately 40 years ago, the emergence of BK virus nephropathy since 1995 onwards, with associated high graft loss rates, has revolutionized renal transplantation medicine. Kidney(More)
The aim of this study was to define in children younger than 2 years of age the diagnostic significance of clinical and laboratory findings to localize site of febrile urinary tract infection. We reviewed the records of 185 children younger than 2 years of age admitted to hospital with febrile urinary tract infection. Patients were divided into having(More)