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Detecting selective sweeps from genomic SNP data is complicated by the intricate ascertainment schemes used to discover SNPs, and by the confounding influence of the underlying complex demographics and varying mutation and recombination rates. Current methods for detecting selective sweeps have little or no robustness to the demographic assumptions and(More)
Supplemental figure Ia Velocity vs. time for a packaging complex held under a constant load of ~5 pN. Velocity was determined by linear fitting in a 1 s sliding window. These data correspond to the black line shown in Fig. 1b. b, To determine the experimental noise, velocity vs. time was also obtained for a 15 kb long DNA molecule that was directly attached(More)
Helicases are a ubiquitous class of enzymes involved in nearly all aspects of DNA and RNA metabolism. Despite recent progress in understanding their mechanism of action, limited resolution has left inaccessible the detailed mechanisms by which these enzymes couple the rearrangement of nucleic acid structures to the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. Observing(More)
We used force-measuring optical tweezers to induce complete mechanical unfolding and refolding of individual Escherichia coli ribonuclease H (RNase H) molecules. The protein unfolds in a two-state manner and refolds through an intermediate that correlates with the transient molten globule-like intermediate observed in bulk studies. This intermediate(More)
Since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees about 5 million years ago, these species have undergone a remarkable evolution with drastic divergence in anatomy and cognitive abilities. At the molecular level, despite the small overall magnitude of DNA sequence divergence, we might expect such evolutionary changes to leave a noticeable signature throughout(More)
  • Jin-Der Wen, Laura Lancaster, Courtney Hodges, Ana-Carolina Zeri, Shige H Yoshimura, Harry F Noller +2 others
  • 2008
We have followed individual ribosomes as they translate single messenger RNA hairpins tethered by the ends to optical tweezers. Here we reveal that translation occurs through successive translocation--and-pause cycles. The distribution of pause lengths, with a median of 2.8 s, indicates that at least two rate-determining processes control each pause. Each(More)
The ribosome translates the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA into protein. Folded structures in the coding region of an mRNA represent a kinetic barrier that lowers the peptide elongation rate, as the ribosome must disrupt structures it encounters in the mRNA at its entry site to allow translocation to the next codon. Such structures are(More)
Many viruses use programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting to express defined ratios of structural and enzymatic proteins. Pseudoknot structures in messenger RNAs stimulate frameshifting in upstream slippery sequences. The detailed molecular determinants of pseudoknot mechanical stability and frameshifting efficiency are not well understood. Here we use(More)
We present a single molecule method for counting proteins within a diffraction-limited area when using photoactivated localization microscopy. The intrinsic blinking of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins mEos2 and Dendra2 leads to an overcounting error, which constitutes a major obstacle for their use as molecular counting tags. Here, we introduce a(More)
  • Rodrigo A. Maillard, Gheorghe Chistol, Maya Sen, Maurizio Righini, Jiongyi Tan, Christian M. Kaiser +3 others
  • 2011
AAA(+) unfoldases denature and translocate polypeptides into associated peptidases. We report direct observations of mechanical, force-induced protein unfolding by the ClpX unfoldase from E. coli, alone, and in complex with the ClpP peptidase. ClpX hydrolyzes ATP to generate mechanical force and translocate polypeptides through its central pore. Threading(More)