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In the present review we discuss strategies that have been used for heterologous gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells using plasmid vectors. Since the growth of S2 cells is not dependent on anchorage to solid substrates, these cells can be easily cultured in suspension in large volumes. The factors that most affect the growth(More)
Rabies is to this date one of the most important death causing zoonotic viral diseases, with 98% of deaths reported in developing countries, where access to modern vaccines and tools for efficient diagnostic remain unaffordable. In this paper, we describe a newly engineered RNA-based rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) expression vector based on the Semliki(More)
Aiming at maximizing the production of transmembrane rabies virus glycoprotein (rRVGP), the influence of hypothermic temperature on a recombinant Drosophila melanogaster S2 cell culture in Sf-900II medium was investigated. Cell growth and rRVGP production were assessed at 4 culture temperatures in Schott flasks: 16, 20, 24 and 28 °C. The maximum specific(More)
Following infection by mouse hepatitis virus (JHM strain), an induction of natural killer (NK) cell activity was observed in C3H mice, which are considered to be sensitive to JHM virus infection. In contrast, mice of the resistant SJL strain did not show any increase of NK cell activity after JHM virus infection. However, infection of both SJL and C3H mice(More)
As a consequence of selective pressure exerted by the immune response during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a high rate of nucleotide mutations in the viral genome is observed which leads to the emergence of viral escape mutants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of the amino acid (aa) sequence of the HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3)(More)
Serum levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were evaluated in Calomys callosus and Swiss mice during the course of infection by four strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. All strains stimulated the production of this interleukine; however, the timing of its onset and permanence varied among strains and between the two animal models. When chronically infected(More)
Resistance of mice to mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3) infection is genetically determined. Normal adult A/J mice are resistant, and BALB/c mice are susceptible. Higher titers of virus and interferon (IFN) in vivo were found in MHV3-infected BALB/c mice compared with A/J mice. In vitro activation of macrophages (M phi) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) delayed(More)
In contrast to adult mice, young A/J mice, developed an acute hepatitis following infection with Mouse Hepatitis virus type 3. 100% of the young animals died 4 to 5 days after the infection and high levels of virus were found in the liver and peritoneal exudate. Very low levels of IFN-gamma were found in the serum and peritoneal exudate of infected young(More)
Infection with mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV 3) of primary cultures of Kupffer and endothelial cells from the livers of resistant (A/J) and susceptible (BALB/c) mice was followed by the appearance of typical syncytia and comparable yields of virus. Using cells from A/J mice there was a delay of about 24 to 36 h in the appearance of the first particles(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis worldwide. Studies of the early steps of HCV infection have been hampered by the lack of convenient in vitro or in vivo models. Although several cell-surface molecules that mediate the binding of HCV envelope proteins to target cells have been identified, mechanisms of viral entry into human(More)