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Signals induced by the TCR and CD28 costimulatory pathway have been shown to lead to the inactivation of the constitutively active enzyme, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), which has been implicated in the regulation of IL-2 and T cell proliferation. However, it is unknown whether GSK3 plays a similar role in naive and memory CD4(+) T cell responses. Here(More)
We have identified a new role for the matrix enzyme lysyl oxidase-like-2 (LOXL2) in the creation and maintenance of the pathologic microenvironment of cancer and fibrotic disease. Our analysis of biopsies from human tumors and fibrotic lung and liver tissues revealed an increase in LOXL2 in disease-associated stroma and limited expression in healthy(More)
BACKGROUND The oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has been shown to modulate apoptosis in different cell types, but its effect on epithelial cells remains unclear. RESULTS We demonstrate that primary human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) challenged with live P. gingivalis for 24 hours exhibit apoptosis, and we characterize this by M30 epitope(More)
Cluster analysis of DNA microarray data is an important but difficult task in knowledge discovery processes. Many clustering methods are applied to analysis of data for gene expression, but none of them is able to deal with an absolute way with the challenges that this technology raises. Due to this, many applications have been developed for visually(More)
Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is elevated in a variety of inflammatory and oncology indications, including ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. MMP9 is a downstream effector and an upstream mediator of pathways involved in growth and inflammation, and has long been viewed as a promising therapeutic target. However, previous efforts to(More)
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen. In many bacteria iron availability regulates, through the Fur system, not only iron homeostasis but also virulence. The aim of this work was to assess the role of iron on S. maltophilia biofilm formation, EPS production, oxidative stress response, OMPs regulation, quorum sensing (QS), and(More)
The natural expression of tissue-specific genes in the thymus, e.g., insulin, is critical for self-tolerance. The transcription of tissue-specific genes is ascribed to peripheral Ag-expressing (PAE) cells, which discordant studies identified as thymic epithelial cells (TEC) or CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC). We hypothesized that, consistent with APC function,(More)