Carlos Alfaro

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BACKGROUND & AIMS Tremelimumab is a monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory co-receptor that interferes with T cell activation and proliferation. The purpose of this pilot clinical trial was to test the antitumor and antiviral effect of tremelimumab in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)(More)
Recombinant adenovirus administration gives rise to transgene-independent effects caused by the ability of the vector to activate innate immunity mechanisms. We show that recombinant adenoviruses encoding reporter genes trigger IFN-alpha and IFN-beta transcription from both plasmacytoid and myeloid mouse dendritic cells. Interestingly, IFN-beta and(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibits differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC), suggesting a potential immunosuppressive role for this proangiogenic factor. Bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib target VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and are active against several types of cancer, but their effects on the immune system are poorly(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the feasibility and safety of intratumoral injection of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with an adenovirus encoding interleukin-12 genes (AFIL-12) for patients with metastatic gastrointestinal carcinomas. Secondarily, we have evaluated biologic effects and antitumoral activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS Seventeen patients with(More)
Twenty-four patients with metastatic cancer received two cycles of four daily immunizations with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). DC were incubated with preheated autologous tumor lysate and subsequently with IFN-α, TNF-α, and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid to attain type 1 maturation. One DC dose was delivered intranodally, under ultrasound control,(More)
Migration of DC into lymphatic vessels ferries antigenic cargo and pro-inflammatory stimuli into the draining LN. Given that tissues under the influence of viral infections produce type I IFN, it is conceivable that these cytokines enhance DC migration in order to facilitate an antiviral immune response. Cultured lymphatic endothelium monolayers pretreated(More)
In the course of a clinical trial consisting of intratumoral injections of dendritic cells (DCs) transfected to produce interleukin-12, the use of (111)In-labeled tracing doses of DCs showed that most DCs remained inside tumor tissue, instead of migrating out. In search for factors that could explain this retention, it was found that tumors from patients(More)
Expansion and activation of cytolytic T lymphocytes bearing high-affinity T-cell receptors specific for tumor antigens is a major goal of active cancer immunotherapy. Physiologically, T cells receive promitotic and activating signals from endogenous professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) rather than directly from malignant cells. This phenomenon fits(More)
UNLABELLED The tumor microenvironment of transplanted and spontaneous mouse tumors is profoundly deprived of oxygenation as confirmed by positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging. CD8 and CD4 tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL) of transplanted colon carcinomas, melanomas, and spontaneous breast adenocarcinomas are CD137 (4-1BB)-positive, as opposed to(More)
PURPOSE Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are considered an important T-cell immunosuppressive component in cancer-bearing hosts. The factors that attract these cells to the tumor microenvironment are poorly understood. IL8 (CXCL8) is a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils and monocytes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN MDSC were characterized and sorted by(More)