Carlos A Blanco-Centurion

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Ablation of the SCN, an established circadian clock, does not abolish food entrainment, suggesting that the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) must lie outside the SCN. Typically, animals show anticipatory locomotor activity and rise in core body temperature under the influence of the FEO. Signals from the FEO would, therefore, converge onto arousal neurons(More)
There are significant decrements in sleep with age. These include fragmentation of sleep, increased wake time, decrease in the length of sleep bouts, decrease in the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of sleep, decrease in rapid eye movement sleep and a profound decrease in electroencephalogram Delta power (0.3-4 Hz). Old rats also have less sleep in response(More)
Narcolepsy, a disabling neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep attacks, sleep fragmentation, cataplexy, sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep periods and hypnagogic hallucinations was recently linked to a loss of neurons containing the neuropeptide hypocretin. There is considerable variability in the severity of symptoms(More)
The hypocretin (HCRT) neurons are located only in the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus and heavily innervate the cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain (BF), histamine neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), and the noradrenergic locus ceruleus (LC) neurons, three neuronal populations that have traditionally been implicated in(More)
Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic neuropeptide present in the hypothalamus of all vertebrates. MCH is implicated in a number of behaviors but direct evidence is lacking. To selectively stimulate the MCH neurons the gene for the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, was inserted into the MCH neurons of wild-type mice. Three weeks(More)
Ten years ago the sleep disorder narcolepsy was linked to the neuropeptide hypocretin (HCRT), also known as orexin. This disorder is characterized by excessive day time sleepiness, inappropriate triggering of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep and cataplexy, which is a sudden loss of muscle tone during waking. It is still not known how HCRT regulates REM sleep(More)
The neuropeptide hypocretin, also known as orexin, has been implicated in waking since its deletion leads to the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Hypocretin neurons project to major arousal areas, and in an effort to determine which region is responsible for the changes in sleep-wake architecture we have developed the neurotoxin hypocretin2-saporin, which lesions(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES The principal component of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol increases sleep in humans. Endogenous cannabinoids, such as N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), also increase sleep. However, the mechanism by which these molecules promote sleep is not known but might involve a sleep-inducing molecule such as adenosine. Microdialysis(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Extensive evidence suggests that histaminergic neurons promote wakefulness. Histaminergic neurons are found exclusively in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), and electrolytic lesions of the posterior hypothalamus, where the TMN resides, produce intense hypersomnolence. However, electrolytic lesions disrupt fibers of passage, and the(More)
The hypocretin neurons have been implicated in regulating sleep-wake states as they are lost in patients with the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Hypocretin (HCRT) neurons are located only in the perifornical region of the posterior hypothalamus and heavily innervate pontine brainstem neurons, such as the locus coeruleus (LC), which have traditionally been(More)