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Apathy is a salient feature of various neuropsychiatric disorders, from depression to Alzheimer's disease. We formally assess its prevalence in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) together with its clinical, neuropsychological, and morphometric correlates. Thirty patients with PD and 25 normal controls were assessed using an extensive neuropsychological(More)
BACKGROUND Background The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) harbours highly penetrant mutations that are linked to familial parkinsonism. However, the extent of its polymorphic variability in relation to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been assessed systematically. We therefore assessed the frequency of LRRK2 exonic variants in individuals(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental evidence suggests that excitotoxicity might play a major role in HIV-induced neurodegeneration. However, few studies have investigated the role of endogenous glutamate in patients with HIV dementia. OBJECTIVE To analyze CSF and plasma glutamate levels in 30 patients with AIDS with different dementia severity compared with 10(More)
DBI (diazepam-binding inhibitor) is a putative neuromodulatory peptide isolated from rat brain that acts on gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine-Cl- ionophore receptor complex inducing beta-carboline-like effects. We used a cDNA probe complementary to DBI mRNA and a specific antibody for rat DBI to study in rat brain how the dynamic state of DBI can be(More)
BACKGROUND Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation is a valid surgical procedure for the treatment of idiopathic PD, although its precise mechanism of action is still unclear; moreover, there are no conclusive data about the functional anatomy of the human subthalamic region. Identifying the location of active contacts for StnDBS can yield interesting insights(More)
We studied the expression and distribution of the polypeptide diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) in rat peripheral organs by immunocytochemistry, radioimmunoassay, Northern blot analysis and binding assay. Variable amounts of the DBI peptide and DBI mRNA were found in all the tissues examined (liver, duodenum, testis, kidney, adrenal gland, heart, ovary,(More)
Benzodiazepines can regulate neoplastic growth and immune response through specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors. We investigated the presence of peripheral and classic central benzodiazepine receptors as well as diazepam-binding inhibitor, an endogenous ligand of both types of receptors, in different human cerebral tumors. Peripheral benzodiazepine(More)
Platelets release glutamate upon activation and are an important clearance system of the amino acid from blood, through high-affinity glutamate uptake, similar to that described in brain synaptosomes. Since platelet glutamate uptake is decreased in neurodegenerative disorders, we performed a morphological and molecular characterization of platelet glutamate(More)
Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors were measured in human circulating lymphocytes using 3H-PK 11195 as specific ligand. In a group of outpatients with anxiety disorders a significant decrease of receptor density (-37%) was found compared with age-matched controls. In these patients long-term diazepam treatment restored binding density to normal(More)
Cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha can play pathogenetic or protective roles in stroke. They are increased in the brain after experimental ischemia and in the CSF of patients with stroke. However, their presence in the periphery is still controversial. To determine the source and time-course of cytokines in blood of stroke(More)