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OBJECTIVE We tested the effects of chloroquine (CQ) on glycosylation of HIV particles and in combination with protease inhibitors (PIs) on HIV replication and on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1). DESIGN CD4 cell lines were infected with laboratory strains and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with primary isolates(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS To investigate the different clusters of mutations associated with lamivudine resistance in HBV genotypes D and A. METHODS HBV reverse transcriptase sequences of 89 HBV-infected patients failing lamivudine treatment were analyzed. The association of mutations with HBV genotypes was assessed by Chi-Squared test and multivariate logistic(More)
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been found to be integrated monoclonally in a rare skin cancer named Merkel cell carcinoma. More recently, MCPyV has been detected in the upper respiratory tract of pediatric and adult patients. However, the mode of transmission and pathogenic role of MCPyV in the respiratory system has not been determined. In this(More)
We characterized 16 additional mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) whose role in drug resistance is still unknown by analyzing 1,906 plasma-derived HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences from 551 drug-naïve patients and 1,355 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-treated patients. Twelve mutations positively associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of multiple drugs in a large human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient population, the virtual phenotype profiles for HIV in the plasma and CSF compartments, and the correlation of these profiles with exposure to antiretroviral therapy need to be further investigated. METHODS Drug(More)
BACKGROUND Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can suppress viral replication and prolong patient life substantially. However, HAART can fail for a number of reasons, including incomplete adherence, pharmacokinetic factors and the emergence of resistance. Because the number of possible antiretroviral combinations is limited, the use of existing(More)
BACKGROUND As a part of our search for oncogenic viruses as potential etiological agents in human malignancies, our studies on human papillomaviruses (HPV) were extended to analysis of the 3 polyomaviruses (SV40, BKV and JCV) in colorectal carcinomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS Archival tumour samples from 71 patients with colorectal cancer were analyzed for(More)
Resistance to antivirals is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that involves more mutations than are currently known. Here, we characterize 10 additional mutations (L74V, K101Q, I135M/T, V179I, H221Y, K223E/Q, and L228H/R) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase which are involved in the regulation of resistance to nonnucleoside(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of mutations in the reverse-transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) region in a cohort of chronically-infected HIV-positive patients requiring highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS The study included 347 patients enrolled in the Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral Naive patients (I.CO.NA) who had to initiate(More)
A negative association between polymorphism Leu-214 and type-1 thymidine analogue mutations (TAM1) and a positive association with a clinically favorable virological response to thymidine analogue-based combination antiretroviral therapy have been described. In this study, the impact of Leu-214 on replication capacity and resistance to zidovudine (ZDV) of(More)