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OBJECTIVE We tested the effects of chloroquine (CQ) on glycosylation of HIV particles and in combination with protease inhibitors (PIs) on HIV replication and on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1). DESIGN CD4 cell lines were infected with laboratory strains and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with primary isolates(More)
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been found to be integrated monoclonally in a rare skin cancer named Merkel cell carcinoma. More recently, MCPyV has been detected in the upper respiratory tract of pediatric and adult patients. However, the mode of transmission and pathogenic role of MCPyV in the respiratory system has not been determined. In this(More)
BACKGROUND As a part of our search for oncogenic viruses as potential etiological agents in human malignancies, our studies on human papillomaviruses (HPV) were extended to analysis of the 3 polyomaviruses (SV40, BKV and JCV) in colorectal carcinomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS Archival tumour samples from 71 patients with colorectal cancer were analyzed for(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of multiple drugs in a large human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient population, the virtual phenotype profiles for HIV in the plasma and CSF compartments, and the correlation of these profiles with exposure to antiretroviral therapy need to be further investigated. METHODS Drug(More)
Occult HBV infection (OBI) is a threat for the safety of blood-supply, and has been associated with the onset of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma and lymphomagenesis. Nevertheless, genetic markers in HBsAg (particularly in D-genotype, the most common in Europe) significantly associated with OBI in vivo are missing. Thus, the goal of this study is to(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of mutations in the reverse-transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) region in a cohort of chronically-infected HIV-positive patients requiring highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS The study included 347 patients enrolled in the Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral Naive patients (I.CO.NA) who had to initiate(More)
A negative association between polymorphism Leu-214 and type-1 thymidine analogue mutations (TAM1) and a positive association with a clinically favorable virological response to thymidine analogue-based combination antiretroviral therapy have been described. In this study, the impact of Leu-214 on replication capacity and resistance to zidovudine (ZDV) of(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of the HIV reverse transcriptase K65R mutation on virological response to salvage therapy has not been clearly defined. METHODS From six Italian clinical centres, all consecutive patients starting salvage antiretroviral therapy after virological failure in the presence of the K65R mutation identified by a genotypic resistance test(More)
Dual/mixed-tropic HIV-1 strains are predominant in a significative proportion of patients, though few information is available regarding the genetic characteristics, quasispecies composition, and susceptibility against CCR5-antagonists of the primary-isolates. For this reason, we investigated in deep details, both phenotypically and genotypically, the(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to develop a tipranavir-weighted mutation score that provides guidance to treating physicians on the relative effect of specific protease mutations on tipranavir activity. METHODS Weights were developed using data from RESIST tipranavir-treated patients based on regressions of virological response at weeks 8 and(More)