Carlo Federico Perno

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Resistance to antivirals is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that involves more mutations than are currently known. Here, we characterize 10 additional mutations (L74V, K101Q, I135M/T, V179I, H221Y, K223E/Q, and L228H/R) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase which are involved in the regulation of resistance to nonnucleoside(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of multiple drugs in a large human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient population, the virtual phenotype profiles for HIV in the plasma and CSF compartments, and the correlation of these profiles with exposure to antiretroviral therapy need to be further investigated. METHODS Drug(More)
We characterized 16 additional mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) whose role in drug resistance is still unknown by analyzing 1,906 plasma-derived HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences from 551 drug-naïve patients and 1,355 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-treated patients. Twelve mutations positively associated with(More)
The aim of this survey was to assess the prevalence and distribution of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in women who underwent screening for cervical cancer in Italy. The correlation of genotypes with the cytological results was also evaluated. Cervical samples were collected from 9,947 self-referring women for cervical cancer screening.(More)
Cells of macrophage lineage represent a key target of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in addition to CD4-lymphocytes. The absolute number of infected macrophages in the body is relatively low compared to CD4-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, the peculiar dynamics of HIV replication in macrophages, their long-term survival after HIV infection, and their ability(More)
The HIV-1 integrase, responsible for the chromosomal integration of the newly synthesized double-stranded viral DNA into the host genomic DNA, represents a new and important target of potential clinical relevance. For instance, two integrase inhibitors, raltegravir and elvitegravir, have been shown to be promising in clinical trials, and the first has been(More)
A recent increase in HIV diagnoses among men-having-sex-with-men (MSM) has been shown by surveillance data from Europe and Italy, and new approaches to inferring viral population dynamics from heterochronously sampled gene sequences have been developed. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the epidemiological history of HIV-1 subtype B in a homogeneous(More)
Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy that have revolutionized HIV disease management, effective control of the HIV infection pandemic remains elusive. Beyond the classic non-B endemic areas, HIV-1 non-B subtype infections are sharply increasing in previous subtype B homogeneous areas such as Europe and North America. As already known, several studies(More)
OBJECTIVE We tested the effects of chloroquine (CQ) on glycosylation of HIV particles and in combination with protease inhibitors (PIs) on HIV replication and on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1). DESIGN CD4 cell lines were infected with laboratory strains and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with primary isolates(More)
To determine the variability of genotypic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 drug-resistance interpretation by available expert systems and its clinical implications, 261 subjects for whom a potent antiretroviral regimen was failing who were starting salvage therapy were evaluated. The association of the genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) of the(More)