Carlo-Federico Perno

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Neurological disorders represent one of the most common disturbances accompanying HIV infection. In the past few years, highly antiretroviral active therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of HIV-related diseases. However, neurological dysfunction in AIDS patients still remains an unresolved problem. Oxidative stress, which occurs in brain tissues(More)
Current highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) cannot eliminate HIV-1 from infected persons, mainly because of the existence of refractory viral reservoir(s). Beyond latently-infected CD4+-T lymphocytes, macrophages (M/M) are important persistent reservoirs for HIV in vivo, that represent a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Therefore, a rational(More)
In 1998, outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were reported in children attending Al-Fateh Hospital in Benghazi, Libya. Here we use molecular phylogenetic techniques to analyse new virus sequences from these outbreaks. We find that the HIV-1 and HCV strains were already circulating and prevalent in(More)
BACKGROUND Because of the extreme genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV), we analyzed whether specific HCV-genotypes are differently prone to develop resistance to linear and macrocyclic protease-inhibitors (PIs). METHODS The study includes 1568 NS3-protease sequences, isolated from PI-naive patients infected with HCV-genotypes 1a (N = 621), 1b (N(More)
BACKGROUND The third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 gp120 surface protein is a major determinant of cellular co-receptor binding. However, HIV-1 can also modulate its tropism through other regions in gp120, such as V1, V2 and C4 regions, as well as in the gp41 protein. Moreover, specific changes in gp41 are likely to be responsible for of damage in(More)
Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy that have revolutionized HIV disease management, effective control of the HIV infection pandemic remains elusive. Beyond the classic non-B endemic areas, HIV-1 non-B subtype infections are sharply increasing in previous subtype B homogeneous areas such as Europe and North America. As already known, several studies(More)
The current strategy to improve the quality of life of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals through suppressing viral replication and maintaining the virus at low to undetectable levels is based on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Protease inhibitors are essential components of most HAART protocols and are often used as the(More)
BACKGROUND Monocytes/Macrophages (M/M) play a pivotal role as a source of virus during the whole course of HIV-1 infection. Enhanced oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 regulatory proteins induce a reduction of the expression and the activity of MnSOD, the mitochondrial isoform leading to a sustained generation of(More)
OBJECTIVES It is still debated if pre-existing minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants (MVs) affect the virological outcomes of first-line NNRTI-containing ART. METHODS This Europe-wide case-control study included ART-naive subjects infected with drug-susceptible HIV-1 as revealed by population sequencing, who achieved virological suppression on first-line(More)