Carlo-Federico Perno

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Current highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) cannot eliminate HIV-1 from infected persons, mainly because of the existence of refractory viral reservoir(s). Beyond latently-infected CD4+-T lymphocytes, macrophages (M/M) are important persistent reservoirs for HIV in vivo, that represent a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Therefore, a rational(More)
BACKGROUND The third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 gp120 surface protein is a major determinant of cellular co-receptor binding. However, HIV-1 can also modulate its tropism through other regions in gp120, such as V1, V2 and C4 regions, as well as in the gp41 protein. Moreover, specific changes in gp41 are likely to be responsible for of damage in(More)
BACKGROUND Monocytes/Macrophages (M/M) play a pivotal role as a source of virus during the whole course of HIV-1 infection. Enhanced oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 regulatory proteins induce a reduction of the expression and the activity of MnSOD, the mitochondrial isoform leading to a sustained generation of(More)
The current strategy to improve the quality of life of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals through suppressing viral replication and maintaining the virus at low to undetectable levels is based on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Protease inhibitors are essential components of most HAART protocols and are often used as the(More)
To define the extent of sequence conservation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) in vivo, the first 320 amino acids of RT obtained from 2,236 plasma-derived samples from a well-defined cohort of 1,704 HIV-1-infected individuals (457 drug naïve and 1,247 drug treated) were analyzed and examined in structural terms. In(More)
MOTIVATION To define V3 genetic elements and structural features underlying different HIV-1 co-receptor usage in vivo. RESULTS By probabilistically modeling mutations in the viruses isolated from HIV-1 B subtype patients, we present a unique statistical procedure that would first identify V3 determinants associated with the usage of different co-receptors(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is often accompanied by infection with other pathogens, in particular herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The resulting coinfection is involved in a vicious circle of mutual facilitations. Therefore, an important task is to develop a compound that is highly potent against both viruses to suppress their(More)
After infection and integration steps, HIV-1 transcriptions increase sharply and singly-spliced mRNAs are produced. These encode Env (gp120 and gp41) and auxiliary proteins Vif, Vpr and VpU. The same localization within the unique structure of the mRNAs suggests that the VpU sequence prior to the Env could affect the Env polyprotein expression.The HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND We previously found that a very low geno2pheno false positive rate (FPR ≤ 2%) defines a viral population associated with low CD4 cell count and the highest amount of X4-quasispecies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating whether FPR ≤ 2% might impact on the viro-immunological response in HIV-1 infected patients starting a first-line HAART. (More)