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Neurological disorders represent one of the most common disturbances accompanying HIV infection. In the past few years, highly antiretroviral active therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of HIV-related diseases. However, neurological dysfunction in AIDS patients still remains an unresolved problem. Oxidative stress, which occurs in brain tissues(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to develop a tipranavir-weighted mutation score that provides guidance to treating physicians on the relative effect of specific protease mutations on tipranavir activity. METHODS Weights were developed using data from RESIST tipranavir-treated patients based on regressions of virological response at weeks 8 and(More)
In 1998, outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were reported in children attending Al-Fateh Hospital in Benghazi, Libya. Here we use molecular phylogenetic techniques to analyse new virus sequences from these outbreaks. We find that the HIV-1 and HCV strains were already circulating and prevalent in(More)
Current highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) cannot eliminate HIV-1 from infected persons, mainly because of the existence of refractory viral reservoir(s). Beyond latently-infected CD4+-T lymphocytes, macrophages (M/M) are important persistent reservoirs for HIV in vivo, that represent a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Therefore, a rational(More)
We characterized 16 additional mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) whose role in drug resistance is still unknown by analyzing 1,906 plasma-derived HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences from 551 drug-naïve patients and 1,355 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-treated patients. Twelve mutations positively associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Because of the extreme genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV), we analyzed whether specific HCV-genotypes are differently prone to develop resistance to linear and macrocyclic protease-inhibitors (PIs). METHODS The study includes 1568 NS3-protease sequences, isolated from PI-naive patients infected with HCV-genotypes 1a (N = 621), 1b (N(More)
BACKGROUND The third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 gp120 surface protein is a major determinant of cellular co-receptor binding. However, HIV-1 can also modulate its tropism through other regions in gp120, such as V1, V2 and C4 regions, as well as in the gp41 protein. Moreover, specific changes in gp41 are likely to be responsible for of damage in(More)
BACKGROUND The dynamics of raltegravir-resistant variants and their impact on virologic response in 23 HIV-1-infected patients, who started a salvage raltegravir-containing regimen, were investigated. METHODS Integrase population sequencing and Ultra-Deep-454 Pyrosequencing (UDPS) were performed on plasma samples at baseline and at raltegravir failure.(More)
Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy that have revolutionized HIV disease management, effective control of the HIV infection pandemic remains elusive. Beyond the classic non-B endemic areas, HIV-1 non-B subtype infections are sharply increasing in previous subtype B homogeneous areas such as Europe and North America. As already known, several studies(More)