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Mosquitoes in the Anopheles gambiae complex show rapid ecological and behavioral diversification, traits that promote malaria transmission and complicate vector control efforts. A high-density, genome-wide mosquito SNP-genotyping array allowed mapping of genomic differentiation between populations and species that exhibit varying levels of reproductive(More)
Previous efforts to uncover the genetic underpinnings of ongoing ecological speciation of the M and S forms of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae revealed two centromere-proximal islands of genetic divergence on X and chromosome 2. Under the assumption of considerable ongoing gene flow between M and S, these persistently divergent genomic islands(More)
The association between fitness-related phenotypic traits and an environmental gradient offers one of the best opportunities to study the interplay between natural selection and migration. In cases in which specific genetic variants also show such clinal patterns, it may be possible to uncover the mutations responsible for local adaptation. The malaria(More)
The M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae are undergoing speciation as they adapt to heterogeneities in the environment, spreading malaria in the process. We hypothesized that their divergence despite gene flow is facilitated by reduced recombination at the centromeric (proximal) end of the X chromosome. We sequenced introns from 22 X chromosome(More)
Sampling of day-resting Anopheles funestus was carried out in September-November 1991, October-December 1992, and November 1994 at two sites near Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: the small village of Noungou where humans outnumber cattle, and the nearby Fulani settlement of Loumbila where cattle outnumber humans. Collections made inside human dwellings were(More)
Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100(More)
BACKGROUND Speciation among members of the Anopheles gambiae complex is thought to be promoted by disruptive selection and ecological divergence acting on sets of adaptation genes protected from recombination by polymorphic paracentric chromosomal inversions. However, shared chromosomal polymorphisms between the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae and(More)
In tropical Africa, Anopheles funestus is one of the three most important malaria vectors. We physically mapped 157 A. funestus complementary DNAs (cDNAs) to the polytene chromosomes of this species. Sequences of the cDNAs were mapped in silico to the A. gambiae genome as part of a comparative genomic study of synteny, gene order, and sequence conservation(More)
Emerging species within the primary malaria vector Anopheles gambiae show different ecological preferences and significant prezygotic reproductive isolation. They are defined by fixed sequence differences in X-linked rDNA, but most previous studies have failed to detect large and significant differentiation between these taxa elsewhere in the genome, except(More)