Carlo Ciatto

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Vertebrate genomes encode 19 classical cadherins and about 100 nonclassical cadherins. Adhesion by classical cadherins depends on binding interactions in their N-terminal EC1 domains, which swap N-terminal beta-strands between partner molecules from apposing cells. However, strand-swapping sequence signatures are absent from nonclassical cadherins, raising(More)
Bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1) is a member of the plakin family of proteins. The plakins are multi-domain proteins that have been shown to interact with microtubules, actin filaments and intermediate filaments, as well as proteins found in cellular junctions. These interactions are mediated through different domains on the plakins. The interactions(More)
Type I and II classical cadherins help to determine the adhesive specificities of animal cells. Crystal-structure determination of ectodomain regions from three type II cadherins reveals adhesive dimers formed by exchange of N-terminal beta strands between partner extracellular cadherin-1 (EC1) domains. These interfaces have two conserved tryptophan side(More)
Cadherin-mediated cell adhesion is achieved through dimerization of cadherin N-terminal extracellular (EC1) domains presented from apposed cells. The dimer state is formed by exchange of N-terminal beta strands and insertion of conserved tryptophan indole side chains from one monomer into hydrophobic acceptor pockets of the partner molecule. The present(More)
Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, which display intracellularly processed peptides on the cell surface for scanning by T-cell receptors (TCRs), are extraordinarily polymorphic. MHC polymorphism is believed to result from natural selection, since individuals heterozygous at the corresponding loci can cope with a larger number of(More)
Viral escape, first characterized for the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in a mouse transgenic for the P14 T cell-receptor (TCR), can be due to mutations in T-cell epitopes. We have measured the affinity between the H-2D(b) containing the wild-type and two of its "viral escape" epitopes, as well as other altered peptide ligands (APL), by using(More)
Traditional metabolic engineering approaches, including homologous recombination, zinc-finger nucleases, and short hairpin RNA, have previously been used to generate biologics with specific characteristics that improve efficacy, potency, and safety. An alternative approach is to exogenously add soluble small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes, formulated with(More)
Like most other surface-exposed antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, the leading malaria vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1 contains a large number of dimorphic amino acid positions. This type of diversity is presumed to be associated with parasite immune evasion and represents one major obstacle to malaria subunit vaccine development. To(More)
The binding of proflavine (D) to single stranded poly(A) (P) was investigated at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C using T-jump, stopped-flow and spectrophotometric methods. Equilibrium measurements show that an external complex PD(I) and an internal complex PD(II) form upon reaction between P and D and that their concentrations depend on the polymer/dye(More)
The decameric peptide SALQNAASIA from the Mycobacterium bovis heat shock protein (hsp) 60 is recognized by the murine T-cell receptor UZ-3-4 in complex with the murine class I major histocompatibility complex molecule H-2D(b). This T-cell receptor cross-reacts with the H-2D(b)-bound non-homologous decameric peptide KDIGNIISDA from the murine hsp60, but does(More)