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Recent experimental studies indicate that synaptic changes induced by neuronal activity are discrete jumps between a small number of stable states. Learning in systems with discrete synapses is known to be a computationally hard problem. Here, we study a neurobiologically plausible on-line learning algorithm that derives from belief propagation algorithms.(More)
This paper proposes a new optimization algorithm called Entropy-SGD for training deep neural networks that is motivated by the local geometry of the energy landscape at solutions found by gradient descent. Local extrema with low generalization error have a large proportion of almost-zero eigenvalues in the Hessian with very few positive or negative(More)
In the course of evolution, proteins show a remarkable conservation of their three-dimensional structure and their biological function, leading to strong evolutionary constraints on the sequence variability between homologous proteins. Our method aims at extracting such constraints from rapidly accumulating sequence data, and thereby at inferring protein(More)
In artificial neural networks, learning from data is a computationally demanding task in which a large number of connection weights are iteratively tuned through stochastic-gradient-based heuristic processes over a cost function. It is not well understood how learning occurs in these systems, in particular how they avoid getting trapped in configurations(More)
The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e.,(More)
We show that discrete synaptic weights can be efficiently used for learning in large scale neural systems, and lead to unanticipated computational performance. We focus on the representative case of learning random patterns with binary synapses in single layer networks. The standard statistical analysis shows that this problem is exponentially dominated by(More)
We present an efficient learning algorithm for the problem of training neural networks with discrete synapses, a well-known hard (NP-complete) discrete optimization problem. The algorithm is a variant of the so-called Max-Sum (MS) algorithm. In particular, we show how, for bounded integer weights with q distinct states and independent concave a priori(More)
Learning in neural networks poses peculiar challenges when using discretized rather then continuous synaptic states. The choice of discrete synapses is motivated by biological reasoning and experiments, and possibly by hardware implementation considerations as well. In this paper we extend a previous large deviations analysis which unveiled the existence of(More)
Understanding protein-protein interactions is central to our understanding of almost all complex biological processes. Computational tools exploiting rapidly growing genomic databases to characterize protein-protein interactions are urgently needed. Such methods should connect multiple scales from evolutionary conserved interactions between families of(More)
1 Direct Information computation in the Gaussian model In order to implement DCA, we aim at quantifying the effect of the interaction between each pair of residues. The idea is to compare a system with only two interacting residues with the non–interacting corresponding scene. Single–site marginals are preserved in both cases while the interaction term is(More)