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Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, infects host macrophages, which triggers production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18. We elucidate here how host macrophages recognize F. tularensis and elicit this proinflammatory response. Using mice deficient in the DNA-sensing inflammasome component AIM2, we(More)
TDP-43 proteinopathies have been observed in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 (i.e., TDP) have been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in frontotemporal lobe degeneration associated with motor neuron disease. To study the consequences of TDP mutation in an intact system, we created(More)
Mice from the inbred C57BL/6 strain have been commonly used for the generation and analysis of transgenic and knockout animal models. However, several C57BL/6 substrains exist, and these are genetically and phenotypically different. In addition, each of these substrains can be purchased from different animal providers and, in some cases, they have(More)
To develop transgenic lines for conditional expression of desired genes in rats, we generated several lines of the transgenic rats carrying the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) gene. Using a vigorous, ubiquitous promoter to drive the tTA transgene, we obtained widespread expression of tTA in various tissues. Expression of tTA was sufficient to(More)
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, infects host macrophages, which triggers production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 β (IL-1 β) and IL-18. We elucidate here how host macrophages recognize Francisella and elicit this pro-inflammatory response. Using mice deficient in the DNA-sensing inflammasome component AIM2, we(More)
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy caused by mutations of the proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1), which is located on the X chromosome and encodes the most abundant protein of myelin in the central nervous sytem. Approximately 60% of PMD cases result from genomic duplications of a region of the X chromosome that includes(More)
Tyrosine O-sulfation is a post-translational modification mediated by one of two Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and -2) expressed in all mammalian cells. Tyrosine sulfation plays an important role in the function of some known TPST substrates by enhancing protein-protein interactions. To explore the role of these enzymes in vivo and gain(More)
Genetic causes account for 20% to 25% of human birth defects, but the largest proportion of birth defects have no definitive etiology and some of these malformations may be due to intrinsic, "nonpreventable" spontaneous errors of development. Environmental causes, which include maternal disease states, maternal infection, mechanical factors, problems of(More)
As the use of genetically engineered mouse models continues to expand, the need to cryopreserve strains of mice increases in parallel in order to preserve these unique research resources and provide a low-cost alternative to maintaining the large inventory of strains. This chapter discusses methods for the cryopreservation of mouse embryos, sperm, and(More)
The NOD.Cg-Prkdc scid Il2rg tm1Wjl /SzJ mouse strain, commonly known as NSG (for NOD SCID Gamma) is severely immunodeficient and thus is an excellent recipient for xenografts, and in particular for engrafting human tumor cells and human hematopoietic stem cells. In the latter case, these cells give rise to many human hematopoetic lineages in their NSG(More)
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