Carlie Guthrie

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Saying something "almost happened" indicates that one is considering a close counterfactual world. Previous evidence suggested that children start to consider these close counterfactuals at around 2 years of age (P. L. Harris, 1997), substantially earlier than they pass other tests of counterfactual thinking. However, this success appears to result from(More)
Tool making evidences intelligent, flexible thinking. In Experiment 1, we confirmed that 4- to 7-year-olds chose a hook tool to retrieve a bucket from a tube. In Experiment 2, 3- to 5-year-olds consistently failed to innovate a simple hook tool. Eight-year-olds performed at mature levels. In contrast, making a tool following demonstration was easy for even(More)
The patching consists of closing an opening in the wall of a vessel by fitting and sewing to its edges a flap taken from another vessel or from some other structure such as the peritoneum [1]. For example, a portion of the wall of a carotid artery may be removed and the opening thus produced closed by a patch taken from the external jugular vein. The(More)