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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a novel non-invasive method with anti-depressant properties. However, the mechanism of activation on the cellular level is unknown. Twelve hours after the last chronic rTMS treatment (14 days, once per day, 20 Hz, 10 s, 75% machine output, the transcription factor c-fos was markedly increased in neurons(More)
Loss of cholinergic neurons is found in the medial septum and nucleus basalis of Meynert in Alzheimer's disease. Recent observations suggest that cholinergic neurons down-regulate their phenotype and that growth factors may rescue cholinergic neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert can be(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potent growth factor for cholinergic neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate if NGF affects cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert (nBM) in organotypic brain slices. In single nBM slices cholinergic neurons rapidly degenerated when incubated without NGF. The number of remaining neurons was rescued(More)
Cell death of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain plays an important role in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Inflammatory cytokines, such as, for example, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), may be involved in these neurodegenerative processes. The aim of this project was to study the role of TNF-alpha in the survival(More)
Microglial activation and proliferation occur in nearly all forms of brain injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on proliferation and/or survival in a GMIR1 rat microglial cell line, which proliferates in response to granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF).(More)
Chromogranin A, chromogranin B and secretogranin II belong to the chromogranin family which consists of large protein molecules that are found in large dense core vesicles. Chromogranins are endoproteolytically processed to smaller peptides. This study was designed to elucidate the regulation of chromgranin expression by acute and subchronic phencyclidine(More)
Dysregulation of proliferation, differentiation and cell death play a major role in glial tumors, and there is evidence for regulatory mechanisms involving nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors in various CNS-derived tumor cell lines. The aim of our study was to observe the effect of exogenous recombinant NGF on C6 rat glioma growth, to characterize(More)
The cholinergic system of the basal forebrain is affected in brains of dementia patients and during neuroinflammation. The aim of this study was to establish a method to cultivate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in dissociated, pure neuronal cultures and to apply this method to study the effect of acute and chronic experimentally-induced inflammation(More)
In Alzheimer's disease cholinergic neurons degenerate, resulting in loss of hippocampal acetylcholine. The fimbria-fornix aspiration is a well-known animal model mimicking hippocampal cholinergic deficiency. The aim of the present study was to use in vivo lipid-mediated gene transfer to introduce an expression vector coding for the acetylcholine(More)
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