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l-Buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) increased the toxicity of nifurtimox and benznidazole toward the epimastigote, trypomastigote, and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. BSO at 500 muM decreased total glutathione-derived thiols by 70 to 80% in 48 h. In epimastigotes, 500 muM BSO decreased the concentration of nifurtimox needed to inhibit constant(More)
BACKGROUND Alterations in connexin 43 (Cx43) expression and/or gap junction (GJ)-mediated intercellular communication are implicated in cancer pathogenesis. Herein, we have investigated the role of Cx43 in melanoma cell proliferation and apoptosis sensitivity in vitro, as well as metastatic capability and tumour growth in vivo. METHODS Connexin 43(More)
Chemokine-dependent localization of specific B cell subsets within the immune microarchitecture is essential to ensure successful cognate interactions. Although cognate interactions between T cells and memory B cells (B(mem)) are essential for the secondary humoral immune responses, the chemokine response patterns of B(mem) cells are largely unknown. In(More)
CD4(+) T cells differentiate into phenotypically distinct T helper cells upon antigenic stimulation. Regulation of plasticity between these CD4(+) T-cell lineages is critical for immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmune disease. However, the factors that regulate lineage stability are largely unknown. Here we investigate a role for retinoic acid (RA)(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the balance of inflammation and tolerance in T cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that RA facilitates IgA isotype switching in B cells in vivo. However, it is unclear whether RA has a direct effect on T-independent B cell responses in vivo. To address this question, we generated a mouse model where RA(More)
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