Carla Ortiz

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l-Buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) increased the toxicity of nifurtimox and benznidazole toward the epimastigote, trypomastigote, and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. BSO at 500 muM decreased total glutathione-derived thiols by 70 to 80% in 48 h. In epimastigotes, 500 muM BSO decreased the concentration of nifurtimox needed to inhibit constant(More)
CD4(+) T cells differentiate into phenotypically distinct T helper cells upon antigenic stimulation. Regulation of plasticity between these CD4(+) T-cell lineages is critical for immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmune disease. However, the factors that regulate lineage stability are largely unknown. Here we investigate a role for retinoic acid (RA)(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the balance of inflammation and tolerance in T cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that RA facilitates IgA isotype switching in B cells in vivo. However, it is unclear whether RA has a direct effect on T-independent B cell responses in vivo. To address this question, we generated a mouse model where RA(More)
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