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CD38 is a bifunctional ectoenzyme, predominantly expressed on hematopoietic cells during differentiation, that catalyzes the synthesis (cyclase) and the degradation (hydrolase) of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a powerful calcium mobilizer from intracellular stores. Due to the well established role of calcium levels in the regulation of apoptosis,(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NR) is a ligand-gated channel that carries the slow component of the glutamate-activated postsynaptic current. Divalent metal ions can affect the NR channel activity in a voltage-dependent [Mg(II)-like] or voltage-independent [Zn(II)-like] manner. We have studied the effect of two toxic metals, lead [Pb(II)] and(More)
1. We investigated the effect of nimodipine on the calcium current in dissociated cerebellar granule cells from 8-day-old rats. We measured the whole cell current and the depolarization-induced internal calcium elevation in Fura2-loaded cells exposed to high-potassium solutions. 2. Nimodipine maximally depressed the peak calcium current from holding(More)
A qualitative and quantitative analysis of M. vastus lateralis fibers from 40 male sedentary subjects, ranging in age from 30 to 89 years, was carried out by light and electron microscopy and by an automatic Interactive Image Analysis System. Biopsies for enzyme histochemical and ultrastructural studies were taken from subjects subdivided into four age(More)
Previously a novel gene was identified that encodes a glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) whose expression is up-regulated by dexamethasone. This study analyzed the role of GILZ in the control of T-cell activation and its possible interaction with nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). Results indicate that GILZ inhibits both T-cell receptor(More)
Biopsies of the rectus femoris muscle of 22 paraplegic patients with complete acute spinal cord transection due to trauma were taken for enzyme-histochemical and electron-microscopic studies in successive stages starting from occurrence of the accident (1-17 months). Ingravescent muscular atrophy was demonstrated with a progressive decrease in the fiber(More)
Nickel (Ni2+) is a transition metal that affects different neuronal ionic channels. We investigated its effects on glutamate channels of the NMDA-type in the presence of saturating concentration of glutamate or NMDA (50 microM), in 0 external Mg and in the continuous presence of saturating glycine (30 microM). In neonatal rat cerebellar granule cells, Ni2+(More)
The influx of the toxic cation Cd2+ was studied in fura 2-loaded rat cerebellar granule neurons. In cells depolarized with Ca2(+)-free, high-KCI solutions, the fluorescence emission ratio (R) increased in the presence of 100 microM Cd2(+). This increase was fully reversed by the Cd2+ chelator tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine, indicating a cadmium(More)
The pathways of lead (Pb(2+)) uptake were studied in fura-2-loaded cerebellar granule cells from 8-day-old rats. In a nominal Ca-free external bath, Pb(2+) (5-50 microM) determined an increase of the fluorescence emission ratio (R = E(340)/E(380)) even in the absence of any specific stimulus. This rise was dose-dependent, was not significantly affected by(More)
The role of voltage-dependent Ca channels (VDCC) in the membrane permeation of two toxic metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), was studied in mammalian cells. Both metals interact with Ca-binding sites, but, while Cd influx appears to occur mainly through the same pathways as Ca, Pb is also rapidly taken up by different passive transport systems. Furthermore,(More)