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Vision is critical for the functional and structural maturation of connections in the mammalian visual system. Visual experience, however, is a subset of a more general requirement for neural activity in transforming immature circuits into the organized connections that subserve adult brain function. Early in development, internally generated spontaneous(More)
Class I major histocompatibility complex (class I MHC) molecules, known to be important for immune responses to antigen, are expressed also by neurons that undergo activity-dependent, long-term structural and synaptic modifications. Here, we show that in mice genetically deficient for cell surface class I MHC or for a class I MHC receptor component,(More)
The refinement of early connections in the visual pathway requires electrical activity in the retina before the onset of vision. Using a multielectrode array, we have shown that the spontaneous activity of cells in the neonatal ferret retina is correlated by patterns of periodically generated traveling waves. Here, we examine developmental changes in the(More)
The development of orderly connections in the mammalian visual system depends on action potentials in the optic nerve fibers, even before the retina receives visual input. In particular, it has been suggested that correlated firing of retinal ganglion cells in the same eye directs the segregation of their synaptic terminals into eye-specific layers within(More)
INTRODUCTION The functioning of the mammalian brain depends upon the precision and accuracy of its neural connections, and nowhere is this requirement more evident than in the neocortex of the cerebral hemispheres. The neocortex is a structure that is divided both radially, from the pial surface to the white matter into six cell layers , and tangentially(More)
When contacts are first forming in the developing nervous system, many neurons generate spontaneous activity that has been hypothesized to shape appropriately patterned connections. In Mustela putorius furo, monocular intraocular blockade of spontaneous retinal waves of action potentials by cholinergic agents altered the subsequent eye-specific lamination(More)
Experience can alter synaptic connectivity throughout life, but the degree of plasticity present at each age is regulated by mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Paired-immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), a major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) receptor, is expressed in subsets of neurons throughout the brain.(More)
Until recently, neurons in the healthy brain were considered immune-privileged because they did not appear to express MHC class I (MHCI). However, MHCI mRNA was found to be regulated by neural activity in the developing visual system and has been detected in other regions of the uninjured brain. Here we show that MHCI regulates aspects of synaptic function(More)
The distribution of geniculocortical afferents serving the left and right eyes was studied in adult cats and in kittens of various ages. Methods used were autoradiography of transneuronally transported 3H-proline injected into one eye, and physiological recordings. In the adult cat, patches of label in layer IV corresponding to ocular dominance columns were(More)
To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic remodeling in the developing mammalian visual system, we screened for genes whose expression in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is regulated by spontaneously generated action potentials present prior to vision. Activity blockade did not alter expression in the LGN of 32 known(More)