Carla J Greenbaum

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The underlying cause of type 1 diabetes, loss of beta-cell function, has become the therapeutic target for a number of interventions in patients with type 1 diabetes. Even though insulin therapies continue to improve, it remains difficult to achieve normal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes, especially long term. The associated risks of hypoglycemia and(More)
BACKGROUND The immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with T-lymphocyte autoimmunity. However, there is growing evidence that B lymphocytes play a role in many T-lymphocyte-mediated diseases. It is possible to achieve selective depletion of B lymphocytes with rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. This phase 2 study evaluated the(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe trends of primary efficacy and safety outcomes of islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes recipients with severe hypoglycemia from the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry (CITR) from 1999 to 2010. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 677 islet transplant-alone or islet-after-kidney recipients with type 1 diabetes in the CITR(More)
BACKGROUND Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a major target of the autoimmune response that occurs in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In animal models of autoimmunity, treatment with a target antigen can modulate aggressive autoimmunity. We aimed to assess whether immunisation with GAD formulated with aluminum hydroxide (GAD-alum) would preserve insulin(More)
OBJECTIVE In humans, multiple genes in the interleukin (IL)-2/IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) pathway are associated with type 1 diabetes. However, no link between IL-2 responsiveness and CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) has been demonstrated in type 1 diabetic subjects despite the role of these IL-2-dependent cells in controlling autoimmunity. Here,(More)
Development of children aged 5 to 12 years born to mothers with heroin dependency raised at home or adopted was studied in comparison with: (1) children with environmental deprivation alone (i.e. low parental socioeconomic status [SES] and evidence of neglect), (2) children born to fathers with heroin dependency fathers, and (3) control individuals of(More)
OBJECTIVE This randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial tested whether oral insulin administration could delay or prevent type 1 diabetes in nondiabetic relatives at risk for diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We screened 103,391 first- and second-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes and analyzed 97,273 samples for(More)
The beta-cell loss seen in diabetes mellitus could be monitored clinically by positron emission tomography (PET) if imaging agents were sufficiently specific for beta-cells to overcome the high ratio of non-beta-cell to beta-cell tissue in pancreas. In this report, we present a screening assay for identifying beta-cell-specific compounds that is based on(More)
Defects in immune regulation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes in mouse and in man. In vitro assays using autologous regulatory (Treg) and responder effector (Teff) T cells have shown that suppression is impaired in diabetic subjects. In this study, we addressed whether the source of this defect is intrinsic to the Treg or Teff(More)
OBJECTIVE There is little information regarding the pattern of metabolic deterioration before the onset of type 1 diabetes. The goal of this study was to utilize data from the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) to obtain a picture of the metabolic progression to type 1 diabetes over a period of approximately 2.5 years before its diagnosis. RESEARCH(More)