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The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain of human and rodents has been associated with the activation of glial cells, neuroinflammatory and oxidative responses, and cognitive deficits. These oxidative changes leave glutamate transporters more vulnerable and may result in reduction of their functions, resulting in excitotoxic damage.(More)
Guanine derivatives (GD) have been implicated in many relevant brain extracellular roles, such as modulation of glutamate transmission and neuronal protection against excitotoxic damage. GD are spontaneously released to the extracellular space from cultured astrocytes and during oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). The aim of this study has been to evaluate(More)
Guanosine (GUO) is an endogenous modulator of glutamatergic excitotoxicity and has been shown to promote neuroprotection in in vivo and in vitro models of neurotoxicity. This study was designed to understand the neuroprotective mechanism of GUO against oxidative damage promoted by oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD). GUO (100 μM) reduced(More)
1. Guanosine-5′-monophosphate (GMP) was evaluated as a neuroprotective agent against the damage observed in rat hippocampal slices submitted to an in vitro model of ischemia with or without the presence of the ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist, Kainic acid (KA). 2. Cellular injury was evaluated by MTT reduction, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release(More)
Ferulic acid (FA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a phytochemical compound naturally present in several plants and foods that is approved as an antioxidant additive and food preservative. It exerts a beneficial action in chronic mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior and produces an acute antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test(More)
Glutamate excitotoxicity may culminate with neuronal and glial cell death. Glutamate induces apoptosis in vivo and in cell cultures. However, glutamate-induced apoptosis and the signaling pathways related to glutamate-induced cell death in acute hippocampal slices remain elusive. Hippocampal slices exposed to 1 or 10 mM glutamate for 1 h and evaluated after(More)
Atorvastatin is a synthetic and lipophilic statin that presents a good effect in decreasing cholesterol levels and is safe and well tolerated. Population-based studies have suggested a positive role of statins in reducing depression risk. This study aimed at investigating the atorvastatin effect in the tail suspension test (TST) and in the forced swimming(More)
Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in brain cells increases extracellular glutamate concentration leading to excitotoxicity. Glutamate uptake from the synaptic cleft is carried out by glutamate transporters, which are likely to be modulated by oxidative stress. Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with reduced activity of glutamate transporters and(More)
Guanine derivates have been implicated in many relevant extracellular roles, such as modulation of glutamate transmission, protecting neurons against excitotoxic damage. Guanine derivatives are spontaneously released to the extracellular space from cultured astrocytes during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and may act as trophic factors, glutamate(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Aloysia gratissima (Gill. et Hook) Tronc. (Verbenaceae) is used traditionally for the treatment of headache, bronchitis, and nervous systems disorders including depression. AIM OF THE STUDY To investigate the antidepressant-like and neuroprotective effects of Aloysia gratissima aqueous extract (AE) and the involvement of(More)