Carla H van Gils

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Considerable experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated endogenous sex steroids - notably androgens and oestrogens - promote breast tumour development. In spite of this evidence, postmenopausal androgen replacement therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or testosterone has been advocated for the prevention of osteoporosis and(More)
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) stimulates cell proliferation and can enhance the development of tumours in different organs. Epidemiological studies have shown that an elevated level of circulating IGF-I is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, as well as of other cancers. Most of circulating IGF-I is bound to an acid-labile subunit and to(More)
The evidence for anthropometric factors influencing breast cancer risk is accumulating, but uncertainties remain concerning the role of fat distribution and potential effect modifiers. We used data from 73,542 premenopausal and 103,344 postmenopausal women from 9 European countries, taking part in the EPIC study. RRs from Cox regression models were(More)
BACKGROUND Contrasting etiologic hypotheses about the role of endogenous sex steroids in breast cancer development among premenopausal women implicate ovarian androgen excess and progesterone deficiency, estrogen excess, estrogen and progesterone excess, and both an excess or lack of adrenal androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] or its sulfate [DHEAS])(More)
BACKGROUND Adiponectin, an adipocytokine secreted by adipose tissue, is decreased in obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and polycystic ovary syndrome, all of which are well-established risk factors for endometrial cancer. METHODS We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition to(More)
Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States. The main identified risk factor is cigarette smoking, which is estimated to contribute to up to 50% of new cases in men and 20% in women. Besides containing other carcinogens, cigarette smoke is a rich source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce a variety of DNA damage, some of(More)
BACKGROUND The etiologies of glioma and meningioma tumors are largely unknown. Although reproductive hormones are thought to influence the risk of these tumors, epidemiologic data are not supportive of this hypothesis; however, few cohort studies have published on this topic. We examined the relation between reproductive factors and the risk of glioma and(More)
Alcohol consumption may be associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the epidemiological evidence for an association with specific anatomical subsites, types of alcoholic beverages and current vs. lifetime alcohol intake is inconsistent. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 478,732 study subjects free of(More)
PURPOSE Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that are structurally and functionally similar to mammalian estrogens. By competing for estrogen receptors, phytoestrogens possibly inhibit binding of the more potent endogenous estrogens and decrease their potential effects on breast cancer risk. We investigated the association between plasma phytoestrogen levels(More)
Many case-control studies have suggested that higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cohort studies do not support such an association. We examined the associations of the consumption of fruits and vegetables and their main subgroups with pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective(More)