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We describe the draft genome of the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex, which is only 200 megabases and contains at least 30,907 genes. The high gene count is a consequence of an elevated rate of gene duplication resulting in tandem gene clusters. More than a third of Daphnia's genes have no detectable homologs in any other available proteome, and the most(More)
Parasites steal resources that a host would otherwise direct toward its own growth and reproduction. We use this fundamental notion to explain resource-dependent virulence in a fungal parasite (Metschnikowia)-zooplankton host (Daphnia) system and in a variety of other disease systems with invertebrate hosts. In an experiment, well-fed hosts died faster and(More)
Epidemiologists increasingly realize that species interactions (e.g. selective predation) can determine when epidemics start and end. We hypothesize here that resource quality can also strongly influence disease dynamics: epidemics can be inhibited when resource quality for hosts is too poor and too good. In three lakes, resource quality for the zooplankton(More)
Species interactions may profoundly influence disease outbreaks. However, disease ecology has only begun to integrate interactions between hosts and their food resources (foraging ecology) despite that hosts often encounter their parasites while feeding. A zooplankton-fungal system illustrated this central connection between foraging and transmission. Using(More)
In nature, multiple parasite species infect multiple host species and are influenced by processes operating across different spatial and temporal scales. Data sets incorporating these complexities offer exciting opportunities to examine factors that shape epidemics. We present a method using generalized linear mixed models in a multilevel modeling framework(More)
Natural selection can lead to rapid changes in organisms, which can in turn influence ecosystem processes 1. A key factor in the functioning of lake ecosystems is the rate at which primary producers are eaten, and major consumers, such as the zooplankton Daphnia 2 , can be subject to strong selection pressures when phytoplankton assemblages change. Lake(More)
The "dilution effect" concept in disease ecology offers the intriguing possibility that clever manipulation of less competent hosts could reduce disease prevalence in populations of more competent hosts. The basic concept is straightforward: host species vary in suitability (competence) for parasites, and disease transmission decreases when there are more(More)
Ecologists and epidemiologists worry that global warming will increase disease prevalence. These fears arise because several direct and indirect mechanisms link warming to disease, and because parasite outbreaks are increasing in many taxa. However, this outcome is not a foregone conclusion, as physiological and community-interaction-based mechanisms may(More)
Successful invasion of a parasite into a host population and resulting host-parasite dynamics can depend crucially on other members of a host's community such as predators. We do not fully understand how predation intensity and selectivity shape host-parasite dynamics because the interplay between predator density, predator foraging behavior, and ecosystem(More)
Parasites can certainly harm host fitness. Given such virulence, hosts should evolve strategies to resist or tolerate infection. But what governs those strategies and the costs that they incur? This study illustrates how a fecundity‐susceptibility trade‐off among clonally reared genotypes of a zooplankton (Daphnia dentifera) infected by a fungal parasite(More)