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The role of oxytocin in male copulatory performance was reexamined in rats. Adult male rats were trained seven times for copulatory behavior, at weekly intervals. Oxytocin, either intraperitoneally injected (200 ng/rat) or intracerebroventricularly infused (1 ng/rat in 4 microliter saline) 60 and 5 min, respectively, before the eighth test, significantly(More)
Ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of death and disability. We investigated whether melanocortin peptides, which have protective effects in severe hypoxic conditions, also produce neuroprotection in a gerbil model of ischemic stroke. A 10-min period of global cerebral ischemia, induced by occluding both common carotid arteries, caused impairment in(More)
OBJECTIVE Several melanocortin peptides have a prompt and sustained resuscitating effect in conditions of hemorrhagic shock. The transcription nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) triggers a potentially lethal systemic inflammatory response, with marked production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in hemorrhagic shock. Here we investigated whether(More)
Melanocortin peptides have been shown to produce neuroprotection in experimental ischemic stroke. The aim of the present investigation was to identify the therapeutic treatment window of melanocortins, and to determine whether these neuropeptides chronically protect against damage consequent to brain ischemia. A 10-min period of global cerebral ischemia in(More)
In gerbils subjected to transient global cerebral ischemia, melanocortin peptides produce long-lasting protection with a broad time window, and through the activation of central nervous system melanocortin MC(4) receptors. Here we aimed to investigate whether melanocortins are neuroprotective also in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia induced by(More)
In rats, the continuous infusion of ACTH-(1-24) into a brain lateral ventricle (0.5 micrograms/h in the volume of 1.11 microliters, for 7 days) caused a significant inhibition of the subsequent behavioural response to the acute intracerebroventricular injection of the same peptide. Tolerance developed to all the most typical signs of the ACTH-induced(More)
We have previously reported that centrally-acting cholinomimetic drugs have a prompt and sustained resuscitating effect in pre-terminal conditions of hemorrhagic shock in rats. Here we have studied the effect of physostigmine in another experimental condition of hypoxia in anesthetized rats, which were endotracheally intubated and subjected to prolonged (5(More)
Nociception is of vital importance for the organism, while its inhibition by endogenous opioid systems is usually a sign of surrender. Therefore, it must be assumed that endogenous analgesic systems are balanced, and in fact, under normal conditions, overwhelmed, by teleologically far more important anti-analgesic systems. The two main anti-analgesic(More)
A volume-controlled hemorrhagic shock was produced in anesthetized rats by intermittent bleeding from an iliac vein over a period of 20-30 min, until the carotid mean arterial pressure (MAP) stabilized around 20-24 mmHg. In this condition, which caused the death of all saline-treated animals within 25-30 min, the intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection of the(More)
In anesthetized rats, massive bleeding to a severe condition of hemorrhagic shock (invariably leading to death within 30 min) was obviously associated with a dramatic decrease in tissue blood flow and with profound modifications of several blood parameters leading to metabolic acidosis: decrease in arterial and venous pH, bicarbonate and BE, decrease in(More)