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The role of oxytocin in male copulatory performance was reexamined in rats. Adult male rats were trained seven times for copulatory behavior, at weekly intervals. Oxytocin, either intraperitoneally injected (200 ng/rat) or intracerebroventricularly infused (1 ng/rat in 4 microliter saline) 60 and 5 min, respectively, before the eighth test, significantly(More)
Ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of death and disability. We investigated whether melanocortin peptides, which have protective effects in severe hypoxic conditions, also produce neuroprotection in a gerbil model of ischemic stroke. A 10-min period of global cerebral ischemia, induced by occluding both common carotid arteries, caused impairment in(More)
1. The resuscitating activity of melanocortin peptides (MSH-ACTH peptides) was tested in an experimental model of prolonged respiratory arrest. 2. Anaesthetized, endotracheally intubated rats subjected to a 5 min period of ventilation interruption, invariably died from cardiac arrest within 6-9 min of resumption of ventilation. 3. When resumption of(More)
Nuclear Factor kappaB (NFkappaB) is an ubiquitous rapid response transcription factor involved in inflammatory reactions and exerts its action by expressing cytokines, chemokines, and cell adhesion molecules. We investigated the role of NF-kappaB in acute hypovolemic hemorrhagic (Hem) shock. Hem shock was induced in male anesthetized rats by intermittently(More)
In rats subjected to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, melanocortin peptides, including gamma(1)-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma(1)-MSH), are able to exert a protective effect by stimulating brain melanocortin MC(3) receptors. A non-melanocortin receptor belonging to a group of receptors for Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2) (FMRFamide)-like peptides may be(More)
OBJECTIVE A vagus nerve-mediated, brain cholinergic protective mechanism activated by melanocortin peptides is operative in conditions of circulatory shock; moreover, there is anatomical evidence of dual vagal-cardiac efferent pathways in rats, which could play different roles in controlling heart function. Therefore, we investigated the role and functional(More)
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has not yet been studied in splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock. We investigated whether electrical stimulation (STIM) of efferent vagus nerves suppresses the inflammatory cascade in SAO shock. Animals were subjected to clamping of the splanchnic arteries for 45 min, followed by reperfusion. This surgical(More)
Experimental evidence indicates that small concentrations of inflammatory molecules produced by damaged tissues activate afferent signals through ascending vagus nerve fibers, that act as the sensory arm of an "inflammatory reflex". The subsequent activation of vagal efferent fibers, which represent the motor arm of the inflammatory reflex, rapidly leads to(More)
In a rat model of volume-controlled hemorrhagic shock causing the death of all saline-treated animals within 30 min of treatment, the intravenous bolus injection of thyrotropin- releasing hormone tartrate (TRH-T) at the dose of 4 mg/kg induced the prompt and sustained disappearance of the ECG and EEG signs of heart and brain ischemia, along with the(More)
OBJECTIVE Several melanocortin peptides have a prompt and sustained resuscitating effect in conditions of hemorrhagic shock. The transcription nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) triggers a potentially lethal systemic inflammatory response, with marked production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in hemorrhagic shock. Here we investigated whether(More)