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The role of oxytocin in male copulatory performance was reexamined in rats. Adult male rats were trained seven times for copulatory behavior, at weekly intervals. Oxytocin, either intraperitoneally injected (200 ng/rat) or intracerebroventricularly infused (1 ng/rat in 4 microliter saline) 60 and 5 min, respectively, before the eighth test, significantly(More)
1. The resuscitating activity of melanocortin peptides (MSH-ACTH peptides) was tested in an experimental model of prolonged respiratory arrest. 2. Anaesthetized, endotracheally intubated rats subjected to a 5 min period of ventilation interruption, invariably died from cardiac arrest within 6-9 min of resumption of ventilation. 3. When resumption of(More)
Ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of death and disability. We investigated whether melanocortin peptides, which have protective effects in severe hypoxic conditions, also produce neuroprotection in a gerbil model of ischemic stroke. A 10-min period of global cerebral ischemia, induced by occluding both common carotid arteries, caused impairment in(More)
Melanocortin peptides are known to be extremely potent in causing the sustained reversal of different shock conditions, both in experimental animals and humans; the mechanism of action includes an essential brain loop. Three melanocortin receptor subtypes are expressed in brain tissue: MC(3), MC(4,) and MC(5) receptors. In a volume-controlled model of(More)
Anesthetized rats were subjected to volume-controlled hemorrhagic shock by stepwise bleeding. Besides cardiovascular and respiratory functions, nitric oxide (NO)-hemoglobin formation in arterial blood was directly evaluated by means of electron spin resonance spectroscopy. During hemorrhagic shock there was a massive increase in NO-hemoglobin, associated(More)
We have previously reported that centrally-acting cholinomimetic drugs have a prompt and sustained resuscitating effect in pre-terminal conditions of hemorrhagic shock in rats. Here we have studied the effect of physostigmine in another experimental condition of hypoxia in anesthetized rats, which were endotracheally intubated and subjected to prolonged (5(More)
We investigated the influence of the adrenocorticotropic fragment 1-24 [ACTH-(1-24)] on the blood levels of highly-reactive free radicals in a rat model of prolonged asphyxia. Anesthetized animals were endotracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated with room air; after a 10 min stabilization period, the ventilator was turned off to induce asphyxia for(More)
In a model of volume-controlled hemorrhagic shock in rats, invariably leading to death within 30 min of bleeding termination, the intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection of ACTH-(1-24) at the dose of 0.16 mg/kg restored cardiovascular and respiratory functions and greatly prolonged survival. I.v. or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) treatment with(More)
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion induces ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and a high degree of lethality. Since ACTH-(1–24) (adrenocorticotropin) protects against such injuries in rats, we investigated which melanocortin MC receptor is involved. Ischemia was produced in anesthetized rats by ligature of the left anterior descending(More)
OBJECTIVE A vagus nerve-mediated, brain cholinergic protective mechanism activated by melanocortin peptides is operative in conditions of circulatory shock; moreover, there is anatomical evidence of dual vagal-cardiac efferent pathways in rats, which could play different roles in controlling heart function. Therefore, we investigated the role and functional(More)