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Through its ability to transport large amounts of heat, fresh water and nutrients, the ocean is an essential regulator of climate. The pathways and mechanisms of this transport and its stability are critical issues in understanding the present state of climate and the possibilities of future changes. Recently, global high-quality hydrographic data have been(More)
Hydrographic sections obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment are combined using a geostrophic inverse model to estimate the global-scale horizontal transports and transport divergences of heat and freshwater with self-consistent error bars. The overall results are compared to bulk formula–derived climatologies and estimates derived from(More)
A recently developed multiresolution estimation framework offers the possibility of highly efficient statistical analysis, interpolation, and smoothing of extremely large data sets in a multiscale fashion. This framework enjoys a number of advantages not shared by other statistically-based methods. In particular, the algorithms resulting from this framework(More)
The intense interest in possible climate change has led to increasing scrutiny of relatively long time series for indications of secular trends in climate indicators. Changes in mean levels of simple fields such as temperature, or shifts in the apparent return times (or oscillation periods) of various phenomena such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation(More)
[1] A new chronology of glaciation, spanning the last 780,000 years, is estimated from 21 marine sediment cores using depth as a proxy for time. To avoid biasing this ‘‘depth-derived’’ age estimate, the depth scale is first corrected for the effects of sediment compaction. To provide age uncertainty estimates, the spatial and temporal variability of marine(More)
To produce an interpretation of the surface kinetic energy as measured by altimeters, a survey is made of the vertical structure of kinetic energy profiles in a large number of globally distributed long current meter records. Although the data are geographically confined primarily to a latitude band in the North Pacific, to the North Atlantic, and to a few(More)
The Open/ADF tool allows the evaluation of derivatives of functions defined by a Fortran program. The derivative evaluation is performed by a Fortran code resulting from the analysis and transformation of the original program that defines the function of interest. Open/ADF has been designed with a particular emphasis on modularity, flexibility, and the use(More)