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The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (InsP3Rs) are a family of Ca2+ release channels localized predominately in the endoplasmic reticulum of all cell types. They function to release Ca2+ into the cytoplasm in response to InsP3 produced by diverse stimuli, generating complex local and global Ca2+ signals that regulate numerous cell(More)
A family of Ca(2+)-binding proteins (CaBPs) was shown to bind to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP(3)R) Ca(2+) release channel and gate it in the absence of InsP(3), establishing them as protein ligands (Yang, J., McBride, S., Mak, D.-O. D., Vardi, N., Palczewski, K., Haeseleer, F., and Foskett, J. K. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99,(More)
MOTIVATION With the generation of a wealth of information, detailing cellular components, their functions and interactions, there is a growing need for the development of new computational tools capable of interpreting these data within spatial and dynamic contexts. Here, we introduce Cell++, a novel stochastic simulation environment with the capacity to(More)
Modulation of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by receptor-mediated generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and activation of its receptor (InsP3R), a Ca2+-release channel in the endoplasmic reticulum, is a ubiquitous signalling mechanism. A fundamental aspect of InsP3-mediated signalling is the graded release of Ca2+ in response to(More)
Spontaneous Ca2+ sparks were observed in fluo 4-loaded myocytes from guinea pig vas deferens with line-scan confocal imaging. They were abolished by ryanodine (100 microM), but the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) blockers 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB; 100 microM) and intracellular heparin (5 mg/ml) increased spark frequency, rise(More)
The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) receptor (InsP(3)R) plays a critical role in generation of complex Ca(2+) signals in many cell types. In patch clamp recordings of isolated nuclei from insect Sf9 cells, InsP(3)R channels were consistently detected with regulation by cytoplasmic InsP(3) and free Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) very similar to(More)
Possible interactions between different intracellular Ca(2+) release channels were studied in isolated rat gastric myocytes using agonist-evoked Ca(2+) signals. Spontaneous, local Ca(2+) transients were observed in fluo-4-loaded cells with linescan confocal imaging. These were blocked by ryanodine (100 microM) but not by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate(More)
Bcl-2 proteins are major regulators of cellular responses to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli. Among them, overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-x(L) modulates intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and organelle-specific apoptotic signaling pathways. However, the specific activities of Bcl-x(L) at mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum(More)
The current model of O2 sensing by carotid body chemoreceptor (glomus) cells is that hypoxia inhibits the outward K(+) current and causes cell depolarization, Ca(2+) influx via voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and a rise in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i). Here we show that hypoxia (<5% O2), in addition to inhibiting the two-pore domain K(+) channels(More)
Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of the enterovirus family, targets the polarized epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract early in infection. Although the polarized epithelium functions as a protective barrier, this barrier is likely exploited by CVB to promote viral entry and subsequent egress. Here we show that, in contrast to nonpolarized cells,(More)