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PCR is a technology born of the modern molecular biology era. The enzyme used for PCR, Taq DNA polymerase, supplied with the 10x buffer, is purchased as a cloned product, and the nucleoside triphosphates are ultrapure, buffered, and available at a convenient concentration. Yet, with all of these commercially available starting materials, PCR still fails,(More)
Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adoles-A NTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY (ART) CAN SUPPRESS THE level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vi-remia (or " viral load ") to undetectable levels in the plasma of a substantial proportion of(More)
The need to broaden research directed at answering fundamental questions in HIV vaccine discovery through laboratory, nonhuman primate (NHP), and clinical research has recently been emphasized. In addition, the importance of attracting and retaining young researchers, developing better NHP models, and more closely linking NHP and clinical research is being(More)
Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) induces significant antiretroviral activities that affect the ability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infect and replicate in its principal target cells, CD4+ T cells and macrophages. A major endogenous source of IFN-alpha during any infection is the macrophage. Thus, macrophages have the potential to produce both(More)
There are currently several ongoing or planned trials evaluating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a preventative approach to reducing the transmission of HIV. PrEP may prove ineffective, demonstrate partial efficacy, or show high efficacy and have the potential to reduce HIV infection in a significant way. However, in addition to the trial(More)
With an HIV prevalence rate comparable to some resource-limited countries, the District mounts a broad response. ABSTRACT: Washington, D.C., is the capital of the United States and is a major center for public health and health policy expertise. Yet the District of Columbia has an HIV prevalence rate among adults of 3 percent, on par with some sub-Saharan(More)
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