Carl T. Wild

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New HIV therapies are urgently needed to address the growing problem of drug resistance. In this article, we characterize the anti-HIV drug candidate 3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl) betulinic acid (PA-457). We show that PA-457 potently inhibits replication of both WT and drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates and demonstrate that the compound acts by disrupting a late(More)
Using an inhibitory synthetic peptide (DP-178) from HIV-1 gp41, we have trapped HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) undergoing conformational changes during virus entry. Our data show that DP-178 binds gp41 and inhibits Env-mediated membrane fusion after gp120 interacts with cellular receptors, indicating that conformational changes involving the coiled coil(More)
Partial deletion of the second hypervariable region from the envelope of the primary-like SF162 virus increases the exposure of certain neutralization epitopes and renders the virus, SF162DeltaV2, highly susceptible to neutralization by clade B and non-clade B human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive) sera (L. Stamatatos and C. Cheng-Mayer, J. Virol.(More)
The distribution of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) at entry portals indicates its involvement in defending the host from pathogens, consistent with the ability of SLPI to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection by an unknown mechanism. We now demonstrate that SLPI binds to the membrane of human macrophages through the(More)
3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl) betulinic acid, also termed PA-457 or DSB, is a novel HIV-1 inhibitor that blocks virus maturation by disrupting cleavage of the capsid precursor, CA-SP1. To better define the molecular target for PA-457, we prepared a panel of mutant viruses with point deletions spanning the CA-SP1 cleavage domain and characterized each of(More)
The effectiveness of cationic microparticles with adsorbed DNA at inducing immune responses was investigated in mice, guinea pigs, and rhesus macaques. Plasmid DNA vaccines encoding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag and Env adsorbed onto the surface of cationic poly(lactide-coglycolide) (PLG) microparticles were shown to be substantially more potent(More)
3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl)betulinic acid (PA-457 or bevirimat) potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation by blocking a late step in the Gag processing pathway, specifically the cleavage of SP1 from the C terminus of capsid (CA). To gain insights into the mechanism(s) by which HIV-1 could evolve resistance to PA-457 and to(More)
3-O-(3',3'-Dimethylsuccinyl) betulinic acid (DSB), also known as PA-457, bevirimat (BVM), or MPC-4326, is a novel HIV-1 maturation inhibitor. Unlike protease inhibitors, BVM blocks the cleavage of the Gag capsid precursor (CA-SP1) to mature capsid (CA) protein, resulting in the release of immature, noninfectious viral particles. Despite the novel mechanism(More)
3'R,4'R-Di-O-(-)-camphanoyl-2',2'-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DCP) (2) was designed and synthesized on the basis of a structure-activity relationship study of 3'R,4'R-di-O-(-)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone DCK (1) and its analogues. DCP (2), a pyranochromone, and DCK (1), a pyranocoumarin, have different skeletons. Compound 2 showed potent in(More)
Six 3-substituted 3',4'-di-O-(S)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone derivatives (3-8) were synthesized from 3-methyl DCK (2). 3-Hydroxymethyl DCK (6) exhibited potent anti-HIV activity in H9 lymphocytes with EC(50) and TI values of 1.87 x 10(-4) microM and 1.89 x 10(5), respectively. These values are similar to those of DCK and better than those of AZT in the(More)