Carl T. Montague

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Human obesity has an inherited component, but in contrast to rodent obesity, precise genetic defects have yet to be defined1. A mutation of carboxypeptidase E (CPE), an enzyme active in the processing and sorting of prohormones, causes obesity in the fat/fat mouse2,3. We have previously described a woman with extreme childhood obesity (Fig. 1), abnormal(More)
PGC1 alpha is a co-activator involved in adaptive thermogenesis, fatty-acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis. We describe the identification of several isoforms of a new human PGC1 alpha homologue, cloned independently and named PGC1 beta. The human PGC1 beta gene is localized to chromosome 5, has 13 exons and spans more than 78 kb. Two different 5' and 3'(More)
The gene encoding the melatonin-related receptor (GPR50) is highly expressed within hypothalamic nuclei concerned with the control of body weight and metabolism. We screened GPR50 for mutations in an obese cohort and identified an insertion of four amino acid residues (TTGH) at position 501, two common coding polymorphisms (T528A and V602I), and one(More)
Epidemiological modelling has concluded that if voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is scaled up in high HIV prevalence settings it would lead to a significant reduction in HIV incidence rates. Following the adoption of this evidence by the WHO, South Africa has embarked on an ambitious VMMC programme. However, South Africa still falls short of(More)
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an integral part of South Africa's HIV prevention programme. School-going males, in particular, are considered a cost-effective target population. However, ambitious policy targets have not been achieved due to the plateau in demand for VMMC. This study documents the factors influencing demand for VMMC amongst(More)
PURPOSE This study sought to assess risk compensation following voluntary medical male circumcision of young school-going men. Risk compensation is defined as an inadvertent increase in sexual risk behaviors and a corresponding decrease in self-perceived risk for contracting HIV following the application of a risk reduction technology. METHODS This study(More)
BACKGROUND The Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) 004 trial demonstrated a 39% reduction in HIV infection, with a 54% HIV reduction in women who used tenofovir gel consistently. A confirmatory trial is expected to report results in early 2015. In the interim, we have a unique window of opportunity to prepare for and devise(More)
BACKGROUND Adolescents in South Africa (SA) have a huge unmet need for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Integrating such services into schools may overcome many of the current barriers to access. OBJECTIVES We describe an SRH service model developed for high-school students and its implementation in 14 high schools in rural SA. METHODS(More)
Reimbursement of trial participants remains a frequently debated issue, with specific guidance lacking. Trials combining post-trial access and implementation science may necessitate new strategies and models. CAPRISA 008, a post-trial access study testing the feasibility of using family planning services to rollout a prelicensure HIV prevention(More)