Carl Shulman

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Asmachines become capable ofmore autonomous and intelligent behavior, will they also display more morally desirable behavior? Earth’s history tends to suggest that increasing intelligence, knowledge, and rationality will result in more cooperative and benevolent behavior. Animals with sophisticated nervous systems track and punish exploitative behavior,(More)
Some researchers in the field of machine ethics have suggested consequentialist or utilitarian theories as organizing principles for Artificial Moral Agents (AMAs) (Wallach, Allen, and Smit 2008) that are ‘full ethical agents’ (Moor 2006), while acknowledging extensive variation among these theories as a serious challenge (Wallach, Allen, and Smit 2008).(More)
The developing academic field of machine ethics seeks to make artificial agents safer as they become more pervasive throughout society. Motivated by planned next-generation robotic systems, machine ethics typically explores solutions for agents with autonomous capacities intermediate between those of current artificial agents and humans, with designs(More)
Anumber of prominent artificial intelligence (AI) researchers and commentators (Moravec 1999a; Solomonoff 1985; Vinge 1993) have presented versions of the following argument: 1. Continued exponential improvement in computer hardware will deliver inexpensive processing power exceeding that of the human brain within the next several decades. 2. If human-level(More)
This paper presents a simple model of an AI (artificial intelligence) arms race, where several development teams race to build the first AI. Under the assumption that the first AI will be very powerful and transformative, each team is incentivised to finish first—by skimping on safety precautions if need be. This paper presents the Nash equilibrium of this(More)
A number of commentators have argued that some time in the 21st century humanity will develop generally intelligent software programs at least as capable as skilled humans, whether designed ab initio or as emulations of human brains, and that such entities will launch an extremely rapid technological transformation as they design their own successors. The(More)
Many scientists expect the eventual development of intelligent software programs capable of closely emulating human brains, to the point of substituting for human labor in almost every economic niche. As software, such emulations could be cheaply copied, with copies subsequently diverging and interacting with their copy-relatives. This paper examines a set(More)
Several authors have made the argument that because blind evolutionary processes produced human intelligence on Earth, it should be feasible for clever human engineers to create human-level artificial intelligence in the not-too-distant future. This evolutionary argument, however, has ignored the observation selection effect that guarantees that observers(More)
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