Carl Risinger

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Many drugs, including proton pump inhibitors and certain antidepressants, are metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme. A significant portion of extensive metabolizers do not reach appropriate drug levels, and our objective was to investigate any genetic background. METHODS The 5'-flanking region of the(More)
Genome duplications are believed to have occurred on multiple occasions in vertebrate evolution. Studies of duplicate gene loci in tetraploid animals may reveal important general aspects of gene duplication, an important mode of gene evolution in metazoans. The common carp Cyprinus carpio has twice as many chromosomes as most other cyprinid fishes due to(More)
The common goldfish Carassius auratus is tetraploid and has 100 chromosomes. We describe here goldfish cDNA clones for SNAP-25, a 200-amino-acid synaptosome-associated protein that has remained highly conserved during evolution. SNAP-25 occurs as a single-copy gene in mouse, chicken, and Drosophila melanogaster. Sequences of six distinct goldfish cDNA(More)
Synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (Snap25) is an intracellular protein that is defined as a target receptor for synapse vesicles prior to neurotransmitter release. Snap25 is highly conserved, with 61% identity between human and Drosophila melanogaster. Whereas mammals and chicken have a single locus for Snap25, the tetraploid goldfish has at least(More)
The neuron-specific proteins SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein 25 kDa), synaptobrevin and syntaxin, are localized to presynaptic terminals in mammals and have been found to associate with proteins involved in vesicle docking and membrane fusion. We describe here SNAP-25 cDNA clones from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the ray Torpedo(More)
SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD) is attached to the intracellular side of presynaptic membranes where it serves as a target receptor for the vesicle docking machinery prior to release of neurotransmitter. SNAP-25 displays a high degree of sequence conservation between vertebrates and Drosophila melanogaster. To obtain more information about(More)
The evolutionarily conserved protein SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein 25 kDa (kilodaltons)) is a component of the protein complex involved in the docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals. We report here that the SNAP-25 gene (Snap) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a complex organization with eight exons spanning more(More)
The green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps, has two protein toxins that bind to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. The sequence of muscarinic toxin 2 was determined with an automatic gas phase sequencer. The C-terminal residue is Asp as determined by hydrazinolysis and amino acid analysis. Toxin 2 has 65 amino acid residues and a formula weight of 7040.(More)