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Reversible transcriptional silencing of genes located near telomeres, termed the telomere position effect (TPE), is well characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. TPE has also been observed in human tumor cell lines, but its function remains unknown. To investigate TPE in normal mammalian cells, we developed clones of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells that(More)
Telomeres are essential for protecting the ends of chromosomes and preventing chromosome fusion. Telomere loss has been proposed to play an important role in the chromosomal rearrangements associated with tumorigenesis. To determine the relationship between telomere loss and chromosome instability in mammalian cells, we investigated the events resulting(More)
Telomeres gradually shorten as human somatic cells divide and a correlation has been observed between the average telomere length and cell senescence. It has been proposed that the genes responsible for cell senescence are located near the telomere and are activated when telomere length reaches a critical point. This is consistent with evidence from(More)
The human endometrium undergoes extensive monthly regeneration in response to fluctuating levels of circulating estrogen and progesterone in premenopausal (Pre-M) women. In contrast, postmenopausal (Post-M) endometrium is thin and quiescent with low mitotic activity, similar to the Pre-M endometrial basalis layer. Clonogenic epithelial stem/progenitor (ESP)(More)
PURPOSE The therapeutic ratio for ionising radiation treatment of tumour is a trade-off between normal tissue side-effects and tumour control. Application of a radioprotector to normal tissue can reduce side-effects. Here we study the effects of a new radioprotector on the cellular response to radiation. Methylproamine is a DNA-binding radioprotector which,(More)
Follistatin is a potent regulator of the inflammatory response and binds to and inhibits activin A action. Activin A is a member of the TGFβ protein superfamily which has regulatory roles in the inflammatory response and in the fibrotic process. Fibrosis can occur following cell injury and cell death induced by agents such as ionizing radiation (IR). IR is(More)
BACKGROUND About 1-5% of cancer patients suffer from significant normal tissue reactions as a result of radiotherapy (RT). It is not possible at this time to predict how most patients' normal tissues will respond to RT. DNA repair dysfunction is implicated in sensitivity to RT particularly in genes that mediate the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs).(More)
The steroid-thyroid hormone receptors bind to imperfect repeats of two or more half-sites. It is generally accepted that a T3 response element (TRE) half-site consists of a six-nucleotide core motif (5'-AGGT(C/A)A-3'). It is less widely appreciated that the nucleotides flanking this core motif also have a major influence on the affinity of T3 receptor (TR)(More)
Radiotherapy is a major modality of cancer treatment responsible for a large proportion of cancer that is cured. Radiation exposure induces an inflammatory response which can be influenced by genetic, epigenetic, tumour, health and other factors which can lead to very different treatment outcomes between individuals. Molecules involved in the immunological(More)
PURPOSE CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T-cells (Treg) are responsible for immunoevasion mechanisms induced by cancer. Specific chemokines such as CCL22 are presumed to mediate active Treg trafficking into the tumour site. In this context, the effects of irradiation and hyperthermia of tumour cells on Treg migration and the CCL22 concentration in the(More)