Carl Mitchell

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The authors report on the development and application of a rapid TaqMan assay for the detection of West Nile (WN) virus in a variety of human clinical specimens and field-collected specimens. Oligonucleotide primers and FAM- and TAMRA-labeled WN virus-specific probes were designed by using the nucleotide sequence of the New York 1999 WN virus isolate. The(More)
A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 isolates. Postinfection, uninfected female(More)
Introduction of West Nile (WN) virus into the United States in 1999 created major human and animal health concerns. Currently, no human or veterinary vaccine is available to prevent WN viral infection, and mosquito control is the only practical strategy to combat the spread of disease. Starting with a previously designed eukaryotic expression vector, we(More)
Since its discovery in Houston, Texas, in 1987, the Asian "tiger mosquito" Aedes albopictus has spread to 678 counties in 25 states. This species, which readily colonizes container habitats in the peridomestic environment, was probably introduced into the continental United States in shipments of scrap tires from northern Asia. The early pattern of(More)
Zoonotic infections are a growing threat to global health. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that is widespread in human populations, causing acute respiratory disease, and has been associated with chronic disease. C. pneumoniae was first identified solely in human populations; however, its host range now includes other mammals, marsupials,(More)
Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 10(3.0) to 10(4.0) PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of(More)
Precipitin tests and ELISA were used to investigate host-feeding patterns of 172 blood-fed Aedes albopictus (Skuse) collected at Potosi, MO, during the summers of 1989 and 1990. One hundred ten (64.0%) mosquitoes had fed on mammals, 29 (16.9%) on birds, and none on turtles or snakes. Thirty-three (19.2%) mosquitoes failed to react in all tests. Eighty-six(More)
Two inbred (isofemale) Aedes aegypti mosquito lines were derived that manifested a resistant or susceptible phenotype following ingestion of yellow fever virus; lack of virus movement from the midgut defined the resistant phenotype. Other flaviviruses, including dengue 1-4, Uganda S, and Zika, viruses behaved in a similar fashion in the two mosquito lines.(More)
Serologic surveys of wild and domestic birds, wild mammals, and horses were conducted during arbovirus field studies in Argentina from 1977 through 1980, a non-epizootic interval. The prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was consistently higher than to western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus in all species and all(More)