Carl M. Schroeder

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A total of 361 Escherichia coli O157 isolates, recovered from humans, cattle, swine, and food during the years 1985 to 2000, were examined to better understand the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among these organisms. Based on broth microdilution results, 220 (61%) of the isolates were susceptible to all 13 antimicrobials tested. Ninety-nine (27%)(More)
A total of 133 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail meats purchased in the United States and the People's Republic of China were assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes, and horizontal transfer of characterized antimicrobial resistance determinants via conjugation. Seventy-three (82%) of(More)
1. Growing knowledge of the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection has led to the identification of potential virus sanctuary sites within the central nervous system and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. 2. Maraviroc is a novel CCR5 antagonist for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Disposition studies have been performed within the(More)
Susceptibilities to fourteen antimicrobial agents important in clinical medicine and agriculture were determined for 752 Escherichia coli isolates of serotypes O26, O103, O111, O128, and O145. Strains of these serotypes may cause urinary tract and enteric infections in humans and have been implicated in infections with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC).(More)
The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction-Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR-HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat program for meat and poultry products, and the pasteurized egg products program. From 1998 through 2003,(More)
Results from our model suggest that eating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis-contaminated shell eggs caused 182,060 illnesses in the United States during 2000. Uncertainty about the estimate ranged from 81,535 (5th percentile) to 276,500 illnesses (95th percentile). Our model provides but 1 approach for estimating foodborne illness and quantifying(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to identify antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). METHODS Two-hundred and seventy-four STEC recovered from poultry, cattle, swine and humans were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, screened for the presence of class 1 integrons by(More)
Four hundred and seventy-two generic Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from ground and whole retail beef, chicken, pork, and turkey obtained from Greater Washington, DC, USA during the years 1998 to 2000. Many of the isolates displayed resistance to tetracycline (59%), sulfamethoxazole (45%), streptomycin (44%), cephalothin (38%) and ampicillin(More)
Deli meat was ranked as the highest-risk ready-to-eat food vehicle of Listeria monocytogenes within the 2003 U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment. The comparative risk of L. monocytogenes in retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was evaluated with a modified version of(More)
Mathematical models that estimate the proportion of foodborne illnesses attributable to food commodities at specific points in the food chain may be useful to risk managers and policy makers to formulate public health goals, prioritize interventions, and document the effectiveness of mitigations aimed at reducing illness. Using human surveillance data on(More)