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The annual phytoplankton bloom occurring north of the Crozet Plateau provides a rare opportunity to examine the hypothesis that natural iron fertilization can alleviate high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) conditions normally associated with the Southern Ocean. Therefore, during CROZet natural iron bloom and EXport experiment (CROZEX), a large(More)
The addition of iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions induces phytoplankton blooms that take up carbon. Carbon export from the surface layer and, in particular, the ability of the ocean and sediments to sequester carbon for many years remains, however, poorly quantified. Here we report data from the CROZEX experiment in the Southern Ocean, which(More)
How one selects a movement when faced with alternative ways of doing a task is a central problem in human motor control. Moving the fingertip a short distance can be achieved with any of an infinite number of combinations of knuckle, wrist, elbow, shoulder, and hip movements. The question therefore arises: how is a unique combination chosen? In our model,(More)
Latency in a communication system can result in confusing a conversation through loss of causality as people exchange verbal and non-verbal nuances. This paper compares true end-to-end latencies across an immersive virtual environment and a video conference link using the same approach to measure both. Our approach is to measure end-to-end latency through(More)
Diatoms are unicellular or chain-forming phytoplankton that use silicon (Si) in cell wall construction. Their survival during periods of apparent nutrient exhaustion enhances carbon sequestration in frontal regions of the northern North Atlantic. These regions may therefore have a more important role in the 'biological pump' than they have previously been(More)
What level of synchronization is necessary between images from multiple cameras in order to realistically reconstruct a moving human in 3D? Live reconstruction of the human form, from cameras surrounding the subject, could bridge the gap between video conferencing and Immersive Collaborative Virtual Environments (ICVEs). Video conferencing faithfully(More)
The aim of our experiment is to determine if eye-gaze can be estimated from a virtuality human: to within the accuracies that underpin social interaction; and reliably across gaze poses and camera arrangements likely in every day settings. The scene is set by explaining why Immersive Virtuality Telepresence has the potential to meet the grand challenge of(More)
—Supporting a wide set of linked non-verbal resources remains an evergreen challenge for communication technology, limiting effectiveness in many applications. Interpersonal distance , gaze, posture and facial expression, are interpreted together to manage and add meaning to most conversations. Yet today's technologies favor some above others. This induces(More)
The lipid content of wheat is small yet could potentially contribute to increased calorific value of grain delivered for livestock and human consumption. Breeding for greater oil content is required but there is little understanding of the extent or nature of genotypic variation for oil concentration in wheat. A diverse range of commercial and novel spring(More)