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OBJECTIVES To compare the plasma and subcutaneous tissue concentration-time profiles of meropenem administered by intermittent bolus dosing or continuous infusion to critically ill patients with sepsis and without renal dysfunction, and to use population pharmacokinetic modelling and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the cumulative fraction of response(More)
The aim of this report is to describe the use of WinBUGS for two datasets that arise from typical population pharmacokinetic studies. The first dataset relates to gentamicin concentration-time data that arose as part of routine clinical care of 55 neonates. The second dataset incorporated data from 96 patients receiving enoxaparin. Both datasets were(More)
Infections in critically ill patients continue to result in unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. Although few data exist for correlating antibiotic exposure with outcome, antibiotic dosing is likely to be highly important for maximizing resolution of infection in many patients. The practical and financial difficulties of performing pharmacokinetic(More)
This study explored how study design influences the probability of selecting a 'true' covariate from two competing covariate models. The probability of selecting the 'True Model' (lean body weight on clearance) over the 'False Model' (total body weight (WT) on clearance) was compared for designs where WT was either lognormally distributed (i.e.(More)
BACKGROUND Critical illness, mediated by trauma or sepsis, can lead to physiological changes that alter the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics and may result in sub-therapeutic concentrations at the sites of infection. The first aim of this project is to identify the clinical characteristics of critically ill patients with significant trauma that have been(More)
Frailty, a multifactorial biological syndrome characterized by a cumulative dysregulation of physiological processes, is associated with changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of frailty on glomerular filtration of drugs, using the probe drug gentamicin. Gentamicin concentrations and clinical data(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma pharmacokinetics of meropenem in patients on continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). PATIENTS AND METHODS This was a prospective observational pharmacokinetic study. Meropenem (500 mg) was administered every 8 h. CVVHDF was targeted as a 2-3 L/h exchange using a polyacrylonitrile(More)
INTRODUCTION It is not known to what extent medication use has been comprehensively assessed in prospective cohort studies of older Australians. Understanding the varying methods to assess medication use is necessary to establish comparability and to understand the opportunities for pharmacoepidemiological analysis. The objective of this review was to(More)
OBJECTIVES To develop a mechanism-based model that describes the time course of the malaria parasite in infected mice receiving a combination therapy regimen of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine. METHODS Total parasite density-time data from Swiss mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei were used for the development of population models in S-ADAPT. The(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the temperature profile of home intravenous (iv) antibiotic reservoirs and the stability of 16 megaunits of benzylpenicillin sodium in 120 mL of sodium chloride 0.9% at constant and variable temperatures. METHODS A Tinytag computerized thermometer recorded temperatures every minute in the home iv(More)