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Humans are remarkably adept at recognizing objects across a wide range of views. A notable exception to this general rule is that turning a face upside down makes it particularly difficult to recognize. This striking effect has prompted speculation that inversion qualitatively changes the way faces are processed. Researchers commonly assume that configural(More)
Magnetic- and electric-evoked brain responses have traditionally been analyzed by comparing the peaks or mean amplitudes of signals from selected channels and averaged across trials. More recently, tools have been developed to investigate single trial response variability (e.g., EEGLAB) and to test differences between averaged evoked responses over the(More)
BACKGROUND In this study, we quantified age-related changes in the time-course of face processing by means of an innovative single-trial ERP approach. Unlike analyses used in previous studies, our approach does not rely on peak measurements and can provide a more sensitive measure of processing delays. Young and old adults (mean ages 22 and 70 years)(More)
A reliable measure is one we can trust in the long run. Thus, the reliability of measurements is as important as their validity. Here we investigated the reliability of brain electrical visual evoked responses to faces and noise textures. For the first time, we provide reliability measures for the full time course of event-related potentials (ERPs). Our(More)
Amplitude spectra might provide information for natural scene classification. Amplitude does play a role in animal detection because accuracy suffers when amplitude is normalized. However, this effect could be due to an interaction between phase and amplitude, rather than to a loss of amplitude-only information. We used an amplitude-swapping paradigm to(More)
Previous research suggests that observers use information near the eyes and eyebrows to identify both upright and inverted faces [Sekuler, A. B., Gaspar, C. M., Gold, J. M., & Bennett, P. J. (2004). Inversion leads to quantitative, not qualitative, changes in face processing. Current Biology, 14(5), 391-396]. Here we ask whether more significant differences(More)
Inverted and contrast-reversed faces are identified less accurately and less rapidly than normal, upright faces. The effects of inversion and contrast-reversal may reflect different sampling strategies and/or different levels of internal noise. To test these alternative hypotheses, we used a combination of noise-masking and response-consistency techniques(More)
We used a single-trial ERP approach to quantify age-related changes in the time-course of noise sensitivity. A total of 62 healthy adults, aged between 19 and 98, performed a non-speeded discrimination task between two faces. Stimulus information was controlled by parametrically manipulating the phase spectrum of these faces. Behavioral 75% correct(More)
We studied how task constraints modulate the relationship between single-trial event-related potentials (ERPs) and image noise. Thirteen subjects performed two interleaved tasks: on different blocks, they saw the same stimuli, but they discriminated either between two faces or between two colors. Stimuli were two pictures of red or green faces that(More)
In the present study we modified the standard classification image method by subsampling visual stimuli to provide us with a technique capable of examining an individual's face-processing strategy in detail with fewer trials. Experiment 1 confirmed that one testing session (1450 trials) was sufficient to produce classification images that were qualitatively(More)
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